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Table 2 Study rigor as informed by Lincoln and Guba (1985) and McMahon and Winch (2018)

From: Men’s roles in care seeking for maternal and newborn health: a qualitative study applying the three delays model to male involvement in Morogoro Region, Tanzania

Principlea As Enacted in this Study
1. Prolonged engagement - The research team was living in this setting and actively working on the larger evaluation for a minimum of six months, but more often several years. Via this immersion, the research team was attuned to the behaviors, priorities, and relationships inherent to this study setting.
2. Analyst triangulation - Debriefingsb were conducted each night throughout data collection and involved all members of the data collection team sharing, comparing, amplifying, or refuting one another’s findings. Findings from debriefings were presented to Tanzania-based researchers, program implementers, and policymakers engaged in maternal health programs for feedback. Debriefing memos formed the basis for an audit trail of the study.
- Members of the research team who undertook data collection also participated in data analysis. During analysis, at least two analysts analyzed each theme report and compared interpretations.
- Throughout analysis, in the event of discrepancies, two senior researchers who were present throughout data collection and led most debriefings, weighed in and determined a way forward (highlighting opportunities for re-translation of interviews as necessary)
- All final results were reviewed by the full research team (including most data collectors)
  1. aAs informed by Lincoln and Guba 1985 [41]; bAs informed by McMahon & Winch 2018 [42]