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Table 1 Frequencies and proportions of maternal characteristics by antenatal model of care, British Columbia, April 1, 2008-December 31, 2012 (n = 33,937)

From: Improving birth outcomes for women who are substance using or have mental illness: a Canadian cohort study comparing antenatal midwifery and physician models of care for women of low socioeconomic position

Maternal Characteristics Antenatal Model of Care
MW n = 3397 n(%) GP n = 25,784 n(%) OB n = 4756 n(%)
Age (yrs.)
 14–19 117 (3.44) 2587 (10.03) 208 (4.37)
 20–24 644 (18.96) 8366 (32.45) 841 (17.68)
 25–29 1161 (34.18) 7716 (29.93) 1371 (28.83)
 30–34 987 (29.06) 4559 (17.68) 1247 (26.22)
 35–39 415 (12.22) 2113 (8.20) 808 (16.99)
  > 40 73 (2.15) 443 (1.72) 281 (5.91)
Paritya
 Nullipara 1607 (47.31) 13,148 (50.99) 2134 (44.87)
 Multipara 1790 (52.69) 12,636 (49.01) 2621 (55.11)
Medical riskb,c 11 (0.32) 263 (1.02) 90 (1.89)
Prior obstetric riskb,d 87 (2.56) 999 (3.87) 280 (5.89)
Mental illnessb,e 1012 (29.79) 4922 (19.09) 545 (11.46)
Receiving social assistanceb 239 (7.04) 3623 (14.05) 535 (11.25)
Pre-pregnancy Body Mass Indexf
 Underweight 156 (4.59) 1281 (4.97) 277 (5.82)
 Normal 1854 (54.58) 9616 (37.29) 1652 (34.74)
 Overweight 511 (15.04) 3554 (13.78) 528 (11.10)
 Obese 243 (7.15) 2340 (9.08) 327 (6.88)
 Unknown 633 (18.63) 8993 (34.88) 1972 (41.46)
Smoking status
 Never 915 (26.94) 5189 (20.12) 1325 (27.86)
 Former 548 (16.13) 3456 (13.40) 299 (6.29)
 Current 336 (9.89) 5540 (21.49) 459 (9.65)
 Unknown 1598 (47.04) 11,599 (44.99) 2673 (56.20)
Substance use in pregnancyb,g 153 (4.50) 2281 (8.85) 182 (3.83)
Alcohol identified as a riskb 47 (1.38) 753 (2.92) 31 (0.65)
Antepartum morbidityb,h 243 (7.15) 3863 (14.98) 1189 (25.00)
Delivery year
 2008 (as of April 1) 419 (12.33) 4495 (17.43) 711 (14.95)
 2009 606 (17.84) 5640 (21.87) 910 (19.13)
 2010 694 (20.43) 5371 (20.83) 1000 (21.03)
 2011 796 (23.43) 5337 (20.70) 1014 (21.32)
 2012 882 (25.96) 4941 (19.16) 1121 (23.57)
Neighbourhood SEPi
 High 450 (13.25) 2846 (11.04) 377 (7.93)
 Low/Medium 2947 (86.75) 22,938 (88.96) 4379 (92.07)
LHA Socioeconomic Rankj
 High (Best) 1858 (54.70) 7314 (28.37) 2327 (48.93)
 Medium 1118 (32.91) 12,774 (49.54) 1897 (39.89)
 Low 412 (12.13) 5641 (21.88) 487 (10.24)
 Unknown 9 (0.26) 55 (0.21) 45 (0.95)
LHA Income Inequality Rankk
 High (Worst) 1188 (34.97) 5776 (22.40) 2419 (50.86)
 Medium 1717 (50.54) 14,829 (57.51) 1999 (42.03)
 Low 483 (14.22) 5133 (19.91) 318 (6.69)
 Unknown 9 (0.26) 46 (0.18) 20 (0.42)
Northern residenceb,l 92 (2.71) 3426 (13.29) 205 (4.31)
  1. Abbreviations: GP general practitioner, MW midwife, OB obstetrician, SEP socioeconomic position
  2. aMissing cases amount to 5 or less
  3. bValues represent cases classified as “Yes”, the remainder of the cases were classified as “No”, “Unknown”, or were undocumented
  4. cIncluded maternal disease of the respiratory or digestive system, and endocrine, nutritional, or metabolic disease
  5. dIncluded women with at least one of the following conditions in past pregnancy: infant with major congenital anomaly, neonatal death, stillbirth, or one preterm delivery
  6. eIncluded any of the following diagnoses prior to, or during the current pregnancy: anxiety disorder, depression, postpartum depression, bipolar disorder, other/unknown (including schizophrenic, mood, and psychotic disorders)
  7. fClassified according to Health Canada’s guidelines [34]
  8. gHeroin/opioids, cocaine, methadone, solvents, marijuana, or other/unknown drugs used at any time during pregnancy, prescription or other drug use identified as a risk at any time during pregnancy
  9. hIncluded pregnancy induced hypertension, gestational diabetes (whether or not insulin dependent), anemia, intrauterine growth restriction, viral disease, infection and parasitic disease, placenta previa without hemorrhage, polyhydramnios or oligohydramnios, antepartum hemorrhage > 20 weeks, sexually transmitted infection or HIV, or premature separation of the placenta
  10. iNeighbourhood income quintiles were classified as low/medium (quintiles 1–4) versus high (quintile 5) [12]
  11. jCalculated by the province of BC’s Statistics Division (BC Stats), based on a range of social determinants of health reflecting area-level economic and social processes, and policy decisions [14]
  12. kCalculated by BC Stats [14]
  13. lAt the time of delivery, normal residence in BC’s Northern Health Authority