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Table 1 Basic characteristics of the studies included in this meta-analysis

From: Peri-conceptional or pregnancy exposure of HPV vaccination and the risk of spontaneous abortion: a systematic review and meta-analysis

First Author Study design Study time Country Exposure vaccine Vaccination exposure time of HPV vaccine group Comparison Vaccination (or placebo) exposure time of control group
Kharbanda (2018) [12] retrospective observational cohort 2008.01–2014.11 the United States 4vHPV within (1) peripregnancy: 42 days before LMP; (2) during pregnancy: first 19 weeks of pregnancy; (3) peri or during pregnancy: 42 days before LMP to 19 weeks of gestation 4vHPV 4vHPV vaccinated within 16 to 22 weeks before LMP
Scheller (2017) [2] retrospective observational cohort 2006.10.1–2013.11 Denmark 4vHPV within 7 to 22 weeks of pregnancy 4vHPV 4vHPV not vaccinated during 7 to 22 weeks of pregnancy
Moreira (2016) [13] combined analysis of 7 phase three clinical trials NA 31 countries 9vHPV and 4vHPV within 30 days before and after conception a 9vHPV and 4vHPV 9vHPV or 4vHPV not vaccinated during 30 days before and after conception
Panagiotou (2015) [14] long term observational follow-up in the Costa Rica HPV Vaccine Trial 2004.6–2013.12 Costa Rica 2vHPV within 90 days before and after conception hepatitis A vaccine or unvaccination not vaccinated HPV vaccine
(2015) [15]
retrospective observational cohort 2008.9–2011.6 United Kingdom 2vHPV within 90 days before and 30 days after LMP 2vHPV 2vHPV vaccinated within 4 to 18 months before LMP
Angelo (2014) [16] pooled analysis of data from 42 completed/ongoing clinical studies NA 40 countries 2vHPV within (1) 45 days before and 30 days after pregnancy; (2) 60 days before pregnancy to pregnancy end; (3) first 12 weeks of pregnancy placebo (Al (OH)3), Havrix, hepatitis A vaccine, Gardasil, Menactra, Boostrix, Boostrix Polio, Engerix B or Twinrix Paediatri vaccination with control vaccine within 60 days before pregnancy to pregnancy end
Garland (2009) [18] combined analysis of five randomized controlled trials NA multiple countries 4vHPV within 30 days before conception placebo vaccination with placebo within 30 days before conception
  1. aconception date was calculated as date of last menstrual period plus 14 days; 2vHPV bivalent HPV vaccine, 4vHPV quadrivalent HPV vaccine, 9vHPV nonavalent HPV vaccine, GW Gestational weeks, LMP Last menstrual period, NA Not available