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Table 1 Average values of the parameters for the pelvis, lumbar spine, and thighs, according to the two squatting birth positions tested in the study (mean, SD)

From: Is there an impact of feet position on squatting birth position? An innovative biomechanical pilot study

  Squatting birth position p value
On tiptoes
\( \overline{X} \) [SD]
Flat feet
\( \overline{X} \) [SD]
Hip flexion (°) 103 [15] 125 [15] 0.02
Hip Abduction (°) 29 [11] 28 [10] 0.28
ANGec (°) − 49 [13] − 34 [9] 0.003
Lumbar curve (°) −18 [14] − 1 [12] < 0.001