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Table 1 Individual characteristics and PM air pollution concentrations of 824,011 singleton term births across three birth status by mothers’ employment status, Seoul, Korea, 2002–2012

From: Association between ambient particulate matter concentration and fetal growth restriction stratified by maternal employment

  Employed mothers (n = 279,856) Non-employed mothers (n = 544,155)
Normal SGA excluding LBW LBW Normal SGA excluding LBW LBW
(n = 244,414; 87.3%) (n = 31,294; 11.2%) (n = 4,148; 1.5%) (n = 474,765, 87.2%) (n = 60,774, 11.2%) (n = 8,616; 1.6%)
Birthweight (kg) 3.37 ± 0.33 2.77 ± 0.13 2.31 ± 0.16 3.38 ± 0.34 2.76 ± 0.13 2.31 ± 0.17
Female sex, n (%) 114,624 (46.9) 19,313 (61.7) 2,461 (59.3) 211,911 (46.7) 37,086 (61.0) 5,186 (60.2)
Gestational age (weeks) 39.22 ± 1.07 39.29 ± 0.97 38.21 ± 1.06 39.19 ± 1.08 39.28 ± 0.97 38.27 ± 1.09
Maternal age (years) 31.01 ± 3.30 30.84 ± 3.27 31.18 ± 3.50 30.66 ± 3.86 30.39 ± 3.93 30.85 ± 4.20
20–24 3,666 (1.5) 442 (1.4) 69 (1.7) 24,821 (5.2) 3,882 (6.4) 568 (6.6)
25–29 79,446 (32.5) 10,855 (34.7) 1,325 (31.9) 159,036 (33.5) 21,417 (35.2) 2,667 (31)
30–34 126,570 (51.8) 15,911 (50.8) 2,090 (50.3) 217,912 (45.9) 26,808 (44.1) 3,786 (43.9)
35–39 31,667 (13.0) 3,720 (11.9) 574 (13.8) 65,075 (13.7) 7,671 (12.6) 1,377 (16)
≥ 40 3,065 (1.3) 366 (1.2) 90 (2.2) 7,921 (1.7) 996 (1.6) 218 (2.5)
Nulliparity 161,663 (66.1) 23,621 (75.5) 3,143 (75.8) 241,127 (50.8) 37,269 (61.3) 5,363 (62.2)
Maternal education level (years)
 <  7 154 (0.1) 17 (0.1) 5 (0.1) 1,463 (0.3) 257 (0.4) 52 (0.6)
 7–12 34,570 (14.1) 4,318 (13.8) 697 (16.8) 180,995 (38.1) 23,271 (38.3) 3,635 (42.2)
 >  12 209,690 (85.8) 26,959 (86.1) 3446 (83.1) 292,307 (61.6) 37,246 (61.3) 4,929 (57.2)
Birth season
 Spring 59,540 (24.4) 7,672 (24.5) 981 (23.6) 118,082 (24.9) 15,292 (25.2) 2,176 (25.3)
 Summer 58,753 (24.0) 7,363(23.5) 992 (23.9) 112,865 (23.8) 14,306 (23.5) 2,111 (24.5)
 Fall 64,437 (26.4) 8,408 (26.9) 1,147 (27.7) 120,076 (25.3) 15,843 (26.1) 2,230 (25.9)
 Winter 61,684 (25.2) 7,851 (25.1) 1,028 (24.8) 123,742 (26.1) 15,333 (25.2) 2,099 (24.4)
PM10 during pregnancy [μg/m3]
 1 year before birth 56.24 ± 9.42 56.22 ± 9.45 55.90 ± 9.24 58.75 ± 10.08 58.8 ± 10.17 58.28 ± 10.20
 Entire pregnancy 55.68 ± 10.21 55.65 ± 10.24 55.32 ± 10.16 58.14 ± 10.84 58.20 ± 10.91 57.74 ± 11.00
 First trimester 56.75 ± 15.63 56.83 ± 15.68 56.52 ± 15.30 59.06 ± 16.73 59.13 ± 16.87 58.42 ± 16.49
 Second trimester 55.52 ± 15.47 55.53 ± 15.57 55.10 ± 15.19 57.85 ± 16.42 58.00 ± 16.50 57.69 ± 16.18
 Third trimester 54.85 ± 17.24 54.69 ± 17.30 54.15 ± 17.27 57.58 ± 18.09 57.52 ± 18.17 57.10 ± 18.03
PM2.5 during pregnancy [μg/m3] a
 1 year before birth 28.35 ± 6.21 28.30 ± 6.25 28.17 ± 5.96 29.60 ± 7.00 29.65 ± 7.08 29.44 ± 7.03
 Entire pregnancy 28.10 ± 6.55 28.03 ± 6.59 27.94 ± 6.29 29.32 ± 7.33 29.33 ± 7.39 29.22 ± 7.40
 First trimester 28.60 ± 8.12 28.59 ± 8.18 28.40 ± 7.77 29.78 ± 9.04 29.82 ± 9.14 29.61 ± 9.03
 Second trimester 28.08 ± 7.95 28.04 ± 7.98 28.84 ± 7.68 29.23 ± 8.81 29.29 ± 8.86 29.22 ± 8.82
 Third trimester 27.70 ± 8.51 27.58 ± 8.51 27.39 ± 8.48 28.97 ± 9.31 28.94 ± 9.38 28.83 ± 9.35
  1. The first, second, and third trimesters were defined as 0–13+ 6, 14+ 0–27+ 6, and 28+ 0–36+ 6 weeks. aAnalysis for PM2.5 is restricted to births occurred in 2008–2012