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Table 2 Labor, delivery, and neonatal characteristics and neonatal outcomes

From: Maternal age and the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes: a retrospective cohort study

  < 17 years (71) 18–28 years (5714) 29–39 years (15591) > 40 years (1552) p
Labor and delivery
 Abnormal fetal presentation 4.23% (3/71) 4.34% (248/5713) 5.33% (831/15590) 6.12% (95/1552) 4,5
 Mode of labor
 Spontaneous 71.21% (47/66) 68.10% (3399/4991) 63.22% (8478/13411) 52.95% (726/1371) 3,4,5,6
 Induced/augmented 19.70% (13/66) 22.30% (1113/4991) 21.19% (2842/13411) 19.69% (270/1371) 5
 Without labor 9.09% (6/66) 9.60% (479/4991) 15.59% (2091/13411) 27.35% (375/1371) 3,4,5,6
 Childbirth mode
 Operative vaginal delivery 5.63% (4/71) 8.58% (490/5714) 7.25% (1130/15591) 5.73% (89/1552) 4,5,6
 Spontaneous delivery 77.46% (55/71) 67.12% (3835/5714) 60.77% (9474/15591) 48.84% (758/1552) 2,3,4,5,6
 Caesarean section 16.90% (12/71) 24.31% (1389/5714) 31.99% (4987/15591) 45.43% (705/1552) 2,3,4,5,6
 Caesarean section in labour 8.33% (5/60) 14.30% (645/4512) 16.72% (1893/11320) 22.09% (220/996) 3,4,5,6
Neonatal charateristics and outcomes
 RDS prophylaxis
  Not performed 97.18% (69/71) 96.04% (5488/5714) 96.34% (15020/15591) 94.33% (1464/1552) 5,6
  Uncompleted 2.82% (2/71) 0.88% (50/5714) 0.66% (103/15591) 0.84% (13/1552) 2
  Completed 0.00% (0/71) 3.08% (176/5714) 3.00% (468/15591) 4.83% (75/1552) 5,6
 Neonatal male sex 49.30% (35/71) 51.40% (2937/5714) 50.86% (7930/15591) 51.29% (796/1552) NS
 1st minute Apgar score 8.00 (8.00–9.00) 8.00 (8.00–9.00) 8.00 (8.00–9.00) 8.00 (8.00–9.00) NS
 5th minute Apgar score 9.00 (9.00–9.00) 9.00 (9.00–9.00) 9.00 (9.00–9.00) 9.00 (9.00–9.00) NS
 Neonatal congenital malformation 4.23% (3/71) 1.38% (79/5714) 1.50% (234/15591) 2.06% (32/1552) 1
 RDS 7.04% (5/71) 5.71% (326/5714) 5.71% (890/15591) 7.80% (121/1552) 5,6
 Retinopathy of prematurity 1.41% (1/71) 0.82% (47/5714) 0.90% (140/15591) 1.10% (17/1552) NS
 3rd 4th degree IVH 1.41% (1/71) 0.26% (15/5714) 0.19% (29/15591) 0.52% (8/1552) 2,6
 Periventricular leucomalacia 0.00% (0/71) 0.16% (9/5714) 0.08% (12/15591) 0.32% (5/1552) 6
 NR 5.63% (4/71) 3.45% (197/5714) 3.30% (515/15588) 4.38% (68/1552) 6
 NICU hospitalization 0.00% (0/71) 0.02% (1/5711) 0.03% (5/15582) 0.00% (0/1551) NS
 Perinatal death 0.00% (0/71) 0.93% (53/5714) 0.74% (116/15591) 1.16% (18/1552) NS
  IUFD 0.00% (0/71) 0.30% (17/5714) 0.37% (58/15591) 0.45% (7/1552) NS
  Neonatal death 0.00% (0/71) 0.63% (36/5714) 0.37% (58/15591) 0.71% (11/1552) 4,6
  1. Acronyms: RDS Respiratory distress syndrome, IVH Intraventricular hemorrhage, NR Neonatal resuscitation, NICU Neonatal intensive care unit, IUFD Intrauterine fetal demise. Different numbers indicate statistically significant differences (p < 0.05): (1) < 17 years vs 18–28 years; (2) < 17 years vs 29–39 years; (3) < 17 years vs > 40 years; (4) 18–28 years vs 29–39 years; (5) 18–28 years vs > 40 years; (6) 29–39 years vs > 40 years. NS= no significant difference