Skip to main content

Table 3 Univariate analysis of factors associated with and without pregnancy-related low back pain (LBP) and/or pelvic girdle pain (PGP)

From: Prevalence and severity of low back- and pelvic girdle pain in pregnant Nepalese women

Variables With LBP and/or PGP
(n = 432)
Without LBP and/or PGP
(n = 852)
Odds ratio (95% confidence interval) P-value
Age, years, n (%)
 ≤ 21 92 (21) 238 (28) 0.08
 22–24 133 (31) 243 (28) 1.4 (1.03–2.00)
 25–27 99 (23) 177 (21) 1.5 (1.03–2.04)
 ≥ 28 108 (25) 194 (23) 1.4 (1.03–2.02)
Weeks of gestation, n (%)
 1–12 52 (12) 127 (15) 0.09
 13–28 208 (49) 430 (51) 1.2 (0.82–1.70)
 29–40 168 (39) 284 (34) 1.4 (0.99–2.10)
Body mass index, n (%)
 < 20 36 (10) 63 (9) < 0.001
 20–24 142 (38) 371 (50) 0.7 (0.43–1.05)
 25–30 159 (42) 259 (35) 1.1 (0.68–1.69)
 > 30 39 (10) 45 (6) 1.5 (0.84–2.74)
Participant’s education, years, n (%)
 No education 25 (6) 88 (10) 0.003
 Primary-secondary (5–10) 200 (46) 425 (50) 1.7 (1.03–2.66)
 Higher secondary and above (≥11) 207 (48) 339 (40) 2.2 (1.33–3.46)
Husbands education, years, n (%)
 No education 15 (3) 45 (5) 0.004
 Primary- secondary (5–10) 199 (46) 457 (54) 1.3 (0.71–2.40)
 Higher secondary and above (≥ 11) 218 (51) 350 (41) 1.9 (1.02–3.43)
Participant’s monthly income, USD, n (%)
 No income 352 (81) 748 (88) 0.009
 ≤ 153 56 (13) 71 (8) 1.7 (1.16–2.43)
 > 153 24 (6) 33 (4) 1.6 (0.90–2.65)
Husbands monthly income, USD, n (%)
 No income 265 (61) 597 (70) 0.007
 ≤ 153 68 (16) 106 (12) 1.4 (1.03–2.03)
 > 153 99 (23) 149 (18) 1.5 (1.11–2.01)
Child care, n (%)
 No 291 (67) 542 (64) 0.18
 Yes 141 (33) 310 (36) 0.8 (0.66–1.08)
Fetching water, n (%)
 No 260 (60) 561 (66) 0.05
 Yes 172 (40) 291 (34) 1.3 (1.00–1.62)
Field work, n (%)
 No 356 (82) 733 (86) 0.09
 Yes 76 (18) 119 (14) 1.3 (0.96–1.80)
Rest during work, n (%)
 No 271 (63) 577 (68) 0.07
 Yes 161 (37) 275 (32) 1.2 (0.98–1.59)
POP-SS, n (%)
 0–2 (no symptoms of POP) 209 (48) 731 (86) < 0.001
 ≥ 3 (symptoms of POP) 223 (52) 121 (14) 6.4 (4.92–8.34)
ICIQ-UI SF, n (%)
 0- No UI 333 (77) 723 (85) 0.003
 1- Reported UI 99 (23) 129 (15) 1.7 (1.24–2.23)
EDS-5, n (%)
 < 5 - no symptoms of depression 309 (72) 714 (84) < 0.001
 ≥ 5 - symptoms of depression 123 (28) 138 (16) 2.1 (1.56–2.72)
  1. USD United States dollar, POP-SS Pelvic organ prolapse symptom score, ≥ 3 (symptoms of POP); 75th percentile, ICIQ-UI SF International consultation on incontinence questionnaire-urinary incontinence short form, EDS-5 Edinburgh depression scale 5-item version (cut off ≥ 5 for symptoms of depression)