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Table 2 Depressive symptoms and adverse outcomes of participants and their newborns

From: Diabetes distress is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with gestational diabetes: a prospective cohort study

  Total (n = 100) mean ± SD or n (%) Low diabetes distress (n = 64) mean ± SD or n (%) High diabetes distress (n = 36) mean ± SD or n (%) p-value
Elevated depressive symptoms antepartum (PHQ9 ≥ 12) 10 (10.0%) 2 (0.03%) 8 (22.2%)** <0.001
Elevated depressive symptoms postpartum (PHQ9 ≥ 12) 12 (12.0%) 3 (0.05%) 9 (25.0%) <0.001
Birth weight in grams 3273 ± 659 3390 ± 508 3065 ± 832 0.02
Hospitalization neonatology 19 (19.0%) 11 (17.2%) 8 (22.2%) 0.54
Macrosomia 9 (9.0%) 7 (10.9%) 2 (5.6%) 0.37
Jaundice 8 (8.0%) 3 (4.7%) 5 (13.9%) 0.11
Hypoglycemia 6 (6.0%) 3 (4.7%) 3 (8.3%) 0.47
Shoulder dystocia 2 (2.0%) 2 (3.1%) 0 (0.0%) 0.29
Other* 16 (16.0%) 10 (15.6%) 6 (16.7%) 0.37
Caesarean section 28 (28.0%) 16 (25.0%) 12 (33.3%) 0.38
Hypertension 10 (10.0%) 5 (7.8%) 5 (13.9%) 0.37
Pre-eclampsia 1 (1.0%) 0 (0.0%) 1 (2.8%) 0.18
Perineal tearing 23 (23.0%) 16 (25.0%) 7 (19.4%) 0.53
Episiotomy 9 (9.0%) 3 (4.7%) 6 (16.7%) <0.05
Postpartum hemorrhage 2 (2.0%) 1 (0.02%) 1 (0.03%) 0.68
Adverse pregnancy outcomes
 Yes 71 (71.0%) 40 (62.5%) 31 (86.1%) <0.01
 No 29 (29.0%) 24 (37.5%) 5 (13.9%)
  1. *among which low heart rate, fever, hypoxia