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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of participants

From: Diabetes distress is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with gestational diabetes: a prospective cohort study

  Total (n = 100) mean ± SD or n (%) Low diabetes distress (n = 64) mean ± SD or n (%) High diabetes distress (n = 36) mean ± SD or n (%) p-value
Characteristics
 Age (years) 32.5 ± 4.1 32.3 ± 4.0 32.9 ± 4.9 0.46
 BMI 26.7 ± 4.8 26.3 ± 3.8 27.4 ± 6.2 0.83
 HbA1c 33.1 ± 4.3 32.4 ± 3.5 34.5 ± 5.2 0.82
 Baseline pregnancy duration in weeks 27.8 ± 3.8 27.4 ± 0.5 28.4 ± 0.5 0.21
Parity
 0 39 (39.0%) 23 (35.9%) 16 (44.4%) 0.41
 1 or more 61 (61.0%) 41 (64.1%) 20 (55.6%)
History of psychological distress
 Yes 46 (46.0%) 24 (37.5%) 22 (61.1%) 0.02
 No 54 (54.0%) 40 (62.5%) 14 (38.9%)
≥ 1 concomitant chronic disease
 Yes 36 (36.0%) 22 (34.4%) 14 (38.9%) 0.67
 No 64 (64.0%) 42 (65.6%) 22 (61.1%)
Insulin use
 Yes 24 (24.0%) 13 (20.3%) 11 (30.6%) 0.25
 No 76 (76.0%) 51 (79.7%) 25 (69.4%)
SESa
 Low 43 (43.0%) 29 (45.3%) 14 (38.9%) 0.54
 High 57 (57.0%) 35 (54.7%) 22 (61.1%)
Ethnicity
 Native Dutch 29 (29.0%) 21 (32.8%) 8 (22.2%) 0.36
 Moroccan 37 (37.0%) 24 (37.5%) 13 (36.1%)
 Turkish 16 (16.0%) 7 (10.9%) 9 (25.0%)
 Surinamese 7 (7.0%) 4 (6.3%) 3 (8.3%)
 Other 11 (11.0%) 8 (12.5%) 3 (8.3%)
  1. asocioeconomic status