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Table 1 Characteristics of women from France and Sub-Saharan African origin

From: Differential rates of cesarean delivery by maternal geographical origin: a cohort study in France

Characteristic Fr Group (n = 2206) SSA Group (n = 1500) P
n % n %
Age (years)
 <  25 195 (8.8) 223 (14.9) < 0.01
 25–29 611 (27.7) 458 (30.5)  
 30–34 891 (40.4) 455 (30.3)  
 ≥ 35 509 (23.1) 364 (24.3)  
Education
 ≤ Primary school 5 (0.2) 329 (22.3) < 0.01
 Middle school 236 (10.7) 355 (24.0)  
 High school 280 (12.7) 384 (26.0)  
 University 1682 (76.4) 410 (27.7)  
Social deprivationa
 none 1978 (89.7) 589 (39.3) < 0.01
 1 criterion 137 (6.2) 358 (23.9)  
 2 criteria 65 (2.9) 224 (15.0)  
 3 or 4 criteria 26 (1.2) 326 (21.8)  
Body mass index (kg/m2)
 < 24.9 1697 (78.2) 649 (49.2) < 0.01
 25–29.9 286 (13.2) 396 (30.0)  
 ≥30 187 (8.6) 275 (20.8)  
Parity
 0 1239 (56.2) 412 (27.5) < 0.01
 1 680 (30.8) 418 (27.9)  
 ≥2 286 (13.0) 669 (44.6)  
High medical risk level at the beginning of pregnancyb 384 (17.5) 399 (26.7) < 0.01
Previous uterine scarc
 0 2029 (92.0) 1159 (77.4) < 0.01
 1 147 (6.7) 230 (15.4)  
 ≥2 29 (1.3) 109 (7.3)  
Multiple pregnancy 77 (3.5) 60 (4.0) 0.42
Adequacy of prenatal care utilizationd
 Inadequate 454 (21.4) 669 (46.5) < 0.01
 Intermediate 306 (14.4) 226 (15.7)  
 Adequate 501 (23.6) 243 (16.9)  
 Adequate plus 865 (40.7) 300 (20.9)  
Preterm delivery 207 (9.4) 150 (10.0) 0.52
Estimation of fetal weighte
 Small for gestational age 84 (4.0) 90 (6.4) < 0.01
 Normal 1988 (94.9) 1289 (91.5)  
 Large for gestational age 23 (1.1) 29 (2.1)  
Complications of pregnancyf 241 (10.9) 213 (14.2) < 0.01
Fetal presentationg
 Cephalic 2083 (94.7) 1424 (95.3) < 0.01
 Breech 113 (5.1) 59 (3.9)  
 Transverse 3 (0.1) 12 (0.8)  
Onset of labor
 Spontaneous 1498 (67.9) 875 (58.3) < 0.01
 Induction 569 (25.8) 401 (26.7)  
 Cesarean delivery before labor 139 (6.3) 224 (14.9)  
Mode of delivery
 Cesarean delivery 370 (16.8) 458 (30.5) < 0.01
  1. Abbreviations: Fr group women born in mainland France and originally from mainland France, SSA group women born in Sub-Saharan Africa and originally from Sub-Saharan Africa
  2. aDefined as the presence of one or more of: 1) social isolation; 2) unstable or insecure housing conditions; 3) main household income not due to paid work; 4) lack of standard health insurance
  3. bHigh medical risk level at the beginning of pregnancy was defined as the presence of one or more of: history of cardiac disease, hypertension, diabetes, venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, Graves’ disease, asthma, homozygous sickle cell anemia, thrombocytopenia, coagulation disorder, a rare or systemic disease, nephropathy, HIV infection, late miscarriage, pre-eclampsia, growth restriction, preterm delivery, fetal death or neonatal death
  4. cIncluding previous caesarean section and/or uterine scar after gynecological surgery
  5. dPrenatal care was considered inadequate if care did not begin before 14 completed weeks’ gestation. If care did begin before them, the percentage of prenatal visits was used to define four categories of prenatal care: inadequate (< 50% of the recommended number), intermediate (50–79%), adequate (80–109%), and adequate plus (≥ 110%). Then, women with missing ultrasounds were reclassified in the inadequate category (if the first trimester ultrasound or both of the latter ultrasounds were missing) or the intermediate category (if only the second or third ultrasound was missing)
  6. eSmall for gestational age: estimation of weight < 10th percentile and large for gestational age: estimation of weight or abdominal circumference > 95th percentile
  7. fDefined as the occurrence of one or more of the following complications: gestational diabetes, pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, placenta abruption, HELLP syndrome, venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, severe sepsis, convulsions, diabetic ketoacidosis, coagulation disorder, cholestasis of pregnancy and complications due to uterine fibroids
  8. gIn case of multiple pregnancy, presentation of the first fetus