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Table 4 Findings of NIEA parameters in studies utilising magnetocardiography

From: A systematic review on the utility of non-invasive electrophysiological assessment in evaluating for intra uterine growth restriction

Year Paper Parameters assessed Findings
2003 Grimm et al. P wave, PR interval, QRS complex and QT interval P and QRS detected in 100%. T waves detected in 95% of fetuses. P wave and QRS complex length demonstrated significant correlation with GA in AGA fetuses (r = 0.222/0.318, p < 0.05). No correlation was seen in IUGR group. QRS duration was longer in IUGR group vs control group (p = 0.009)
2003 Anastasiadis et al. HRV measured through: LF and HF LF and HF components were significantly lower in IUGR group (p < 0.001). Increased LF tone in IUGR fetuses indication of increased sympathetic tone. HF tone was increased in IUGR as well
2006 Schneider et al. HRV measured through: SDNN, RMSSD, LF, HF, LF/HF ratio, TP, complexity of AIF decay SDNN, RMSSD, LF,HF and TP were significantly lower in IUGR group (p < 0.05) No significant difference in LF/HF ratio and AIF decay.
2006 Van Leeuwen et al. P wave, PQ segment, QRS complex, ST segment, T wave, PR interval and Qt interval 100% of CTIs acquired. IUGR foetuses had shorter depolarization times (P wave, PR interval, QRS complex) and longer ventricular repolarization times (QT interval) then controls. Depolarization times had a positive correlation with fetal weight in the IUGR group [Pwave (r = 0.64), QRS (r = 0.47), p < 0.05]
2011 Fukushima et al. HRV measured through PSA: CVRR, LF/HF ratio CVRR in controls showed a weak positive correlation with GA (r = 0.32) while IUGR fetuses showed no such trend (r = 0.05). LF/HF ratio showed a moderate positive correlation with GA for controls (r = 0.49) but a weak correlation with IUGR (r = 0.23) No statistically significant changes in LF/HF ratio between normal pregnancy and IUGR groups
2013 Sriram et al. HRV measured through: PPA,SDNN,RMSSD IUGR group had lower HRV vs low risk group Using PPA – Both HRV in state A and B were lower (36 and 49% lower, p < 0.005) Using SDNN- Both HRV in State A and B were lower (19 and 49%, p < 0.005) RMSSD -not statistically significant
2016 Bolin et al. P wave, PR interval, QRS complex and RR interval Mean P and PR interval were significantly lower in IUGR group then normal pregnancies (p < 0.05) when normalised to 35 weeks of gestation
  1. AGA appropriate for gestational age, AIF autonomic information flow, CVRR coefficient of R-R variability, GA gestational age, IUGR intra uterine growth restriction, HF high frequency, HRV heart rate variability, LF low frequency, PPA phase plane area, RMSSD root mean square difference of successive heart rates, SDNN standard deviation of heart rate, TP total power