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Table 3 Risk of bias summary for studies utilising an RCT/cluster RCT design

From: Maternity service organisational interventions that aim to reduce caesarean section: a systematic review and meta-analyses

Study ID Random sequence generation (selection bias) Allocation concealment (selection bias) Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias) Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias) Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias) Selective reporting (reporting bias) Other sources of bias
Althabe [2004] + + + + + + ?
Begley [2011] + + ? + ? +
Chaillet [2015] + ? + + + + ?
Chambliss [1992] ? + + + + ? +
Gagnon [1997] + + + + ? +
Gu [2013] + + ? + + ? +
Harvey [1996] + + ? ? + ? ?
Hodnett [2002] + + ? + ? +
Homer [2001] + + + + + + +
Janssen [2006] + + + + + ? ?
Kashanian [2010] ? + ? ? + ? +
McLaughlin [2012] + + ? + + ? +
Rowley [1995] + ? ? ? +
Tracy [2013] + + + + + +
  1. Note: Low risk of bias (+); High risk of bias (−); Unclear risk of bias (?)