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Table 2 Summary of meta-analyses

From: Maternity service organisational interventions that aim to reduce caesarean section: a systematic review and meta-analyses

Outcomes K N Effect estimate Heterogeneity
RR 95% CI Z (p) χ2 p I 2 Tau2
Midwife-Led Care vs. Comparator
Overall Caesarean Section 6 7784 0.83 0.73 to 0.96 2.63 (0.008) 8.32 0.14 40% 0.01
Planned Caesarean Section 4 5937 0.75 0.61 to 0.93 2.66 (0.008) 1.19 0.76 0% 0.00
Unplanned Caesarean Section 4 5937 0.87 0.73 to 1.03 1.65 (0.10) 4.55 0.21 34% 0.01
Induction of Labour 5 5498 0.91 0.79 to 1.04 1.43 (0.15) 6.06 0.19 34% 0.01
Epidural 6 7601 0.89 0.79 to 1.00 1.96 (0.05) 10.82 0.06 54% 0.01
Labour Augmentation 5 5498 0.97 0.73 to 1.29 0.23 (0.81) 48.99 < 0.00001 92% 0.09
Instrumental Vaginal Delivery 4 6776 0.96 0.86 to 1.07 0.78 (0.44) 1.82 0.61 0% 0.00
Episiotomy 6 6816 0.84 0.74 to 0.95 2.87 (0.004) 6.19 0.29 19% 0.00
Admission during Pregnancy 4 5304 0.94 0.80 to 1.11 0.77 (0.44) 7.06 0.07 58% 0.02
Apgar scores (< 7 at 5 min) 3 4711 0.94 0.66 to 1.33 0.37 (0.71) 0.88 0.64 0% 0.00
Admission to SCU/NICU 5 6599 0.80 0.62 to 1.04 1.66 (0.10) 8.54 0.07 53% 0.04
Continuous Midwifery Care vs. Comparator
Overall Caesarean Section 3 7428 0.85 0.59 to 1.23 0.88 (0.38) 4.27 0.12 53% 0.06
  1. Abbreviations: K number of studies, N number of participants, RR Risk Ratio, CI Confidence Interval, Z test for overall effect