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Table 2 Univariate analyses between potential confounders and outcomes under study (N = 799)

From: Impact of maternal antepartum depressive and anxiety symptoms on birth outcomes and mode of delivery: a prospective cohort study in east and west coasts of Malaysia

  Low birth weight Preterm birth CS or instrumental delivery
n (%) RR (95% CI) n (%) RR (95% CI) n (%) RR (95% CI)
Age, mean (SD) 28.5 (4.7) 0.94 (0.89–0.98 29.2 (4.6) 0.97 (0.91–1.03) 30.2 (4.8) 1.02 (0.99–1.05)
Educational level
 Primary/secondary 45 (12.5) 1 26 (7.2) 1 100 (27.7) 1
 Tertiary 48 (11.0) 0.76 (0.52–1.18) 23 (5.3) 0.66 (0.38–1.17) 112 (25.6) 0.85 (0.65–1.11)
Occupation
 Home maker 46 (13.3) 1 29 (8.4) 1 89 (25.8) 1
 Employed 47 (10.4) 0.72 (0.48–1.08) 20 (4.4) 0.49 (0.28–0.88) 123 (27.1) 0.98 (0.74–1.28)
Monthly household income
 High income 10 (6.0) 1 5 (3.0) 1 52 (31.0) 1
 Middle income 42 (10.3) 1.86 (0.93–3.71) 22 (5.4) 1.92 (0.73–5.07) 95 (23.4) 0.79 (0.56–1.11)
 Low income 41 (18.2) 3.91 (1.95–7.84) 22 (9.8) 4.02 (1.51–10.68) 65 (28.9) 1.16 (0.80–1.67)
BMI
 Overweight/obesity 38 (7.4) 1 24 (4.7) 1
 Normal weight 29 (11.9) 1.40 (0.86–2.27) 13 (5.3) 1.02 (0.52 2.00)   
 Underweight 26 (60.5) 10.50 (6.36–17.32) 12 (27.9) 7.24 (3.61–14.49)   
BMI mean (SD)      28.2 (6.0) 1.04 (1.01–1.06)
Social support, mean (SD) 65.4 (11.6) 0.99 (0.97–1.01) 63.6 (13.7) 0.97 (0.95–0.99) 66.1 (9.9) 0.99 (0.98–1.01)
Parity
 Multipara 42 (8.0) 1 28 (5.3) 1 128 1
 Primipara 51 (18.8) 2.42 (1.61–3.65) 21 (7.7) 0.85 (0.84–2.63) (24.2) 84 (31.0) 1.33 (1.01–1.75)
Physical abuse ever
 No 79 (10.2) 1 41 (5.3) 1 206 (26.5) 1
 Yes 14 (66.7) 8.39 (4.73–14.89) 8 (38.1) 9.71 (4.53–20.81) 6 (28.6) 1.43 (0.63–3.22)
Physical abuse during pregnancy
 No 88 (11.2) 1 46 (5.9) 1 208 (26.5) 1
 Yes 5 (38.5) 2.96 (1.20–7.33) 3 (23.1) 3.67 (1.13–11.87) 4 (30.8) 0.98 (0.36–2.64)
Depression in earlier pregnancy
 No 76 (10.6) 1 41 (5.7) 1 192 (26.8) 1
 Yes 16 (20.3) 1.99 (1.16–3.42) 8 (10.1) 1.85 (0.86–3.95) 19 (24.1) 0.97 (0.61–1.56)
Antepartum depressive symptoms
 No 55 (7.8) 1 32 (4.6) 1 177 (25.2) 1
 Yes 38 (38.8) 6.43 (4.21–9.82) 17 (17.3) 4.65 (2.56–8.44) 35 (35.7) 1.80 (1.25–2.59)
Antepartum anxiety symptoms
 No 51 (8.9) 1 28 (4.9) 1 136 (23.9) 1
 Yes 42 (18.3) 1.90 (1.26–2.85) 21 (9.2) 1.77 (1.01–3.11) 76 (33.2) 1.29 (0.97–1.70)
Newborn’s sex
 Girl 38 (10.1) 1 18 (4.8) 1 97 (25.9) 1
 Boy 55 (13.0) 1.23 (0.85–1.95) 31 (7.3) 1.51 (0.85–2.69) 115 (27.1) 1.05 (0.80–1.38)
Complications during delivery
 No 89 (11.5) 1 47 (6.1) 1 190 (24.6) 1
 Yes 4 (15.4) 1.45 (0.53–3.94) 2 (7.7) 1.34 (0.33–5.52) 22 (84.6) 3.86 (2.48–6.01)
Birth weight, mean (SD) 3.0 (0.5) 0.89 (0.66–1.20)
Gestational week, mean (SD) 39.9 (1.5) 0.85 (0.78–0.92)