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Table 4 The associations between teenage pregnancy and demographic, behavioural, familial and social factors, Lira (Uganda)

From: Predictors of teenage pregnancy among girls aged 13–19 years in Uganda: a community based case-control study

Variable B SE Model 1 AOR (95%CI) B SE Model 2 AOR (95%CI) B SE Model 3 AOR (95%CI) B SE Model 4 AOR (95%CI)
Demographic variables
 Age group (years)
  Younger teenagers    1    1    1    1
  Older teenagers 0.32 0.80 1.4 (0.29–6.61) −0.45 −1.14 0.7 (0.07–5.91) − 0.54 1.23 0.6 (0.05–6.50) 0.34 2.05 1.4 (0.03–78.47)
 Place of residence
  Urban    1    1    1    1
  Rural 0.51 0.34 1.7 (0.86–3.23) 0.26 0.42 1.3 (0.58–2.93) 0.36 0.48 1.4 (0.55–3.68) −1.20 0.82 0.3 (0.06–1.51)
 School attendance
  In school    1    1    1    1
  Not in school 3.83 0.44 45.9 (19.55–107.91)** 3.92 0.55 50.3 (17.25–146.96)** 3.84 0.65 46.6 (13.03–166.91)** 3.87 0.94 47.7 (7.61–299.53)**
 Fathers’ education
  Post-secondary education    1    1    1    1
  No education −0.06 0.55 0.9 (0.32–2.78) 0.28 0.74 1.3 (0.31–5.59) 0.16 0.84 1.2 (0.23–6.15) 1.00 1.17 2.7 (0.27–26.78)
  Primary education − 0.52 0.45 0.6 (0.25–1.44) − 0.48 0.59 0.6 (0.20–1.97) −0.29 0.71 0.7 (0.19–3.02) 1.30 1.22 3.7 (0.33–40.42)
  Secondary education −0.49 0.45 0.6 (0.26–1.47) −0.34 0.55 0.7 (0.24–2.10) −0.44 0.65 0.6 (0.18–2.30) 0.24 0.98 1.3 (0.19–8.66)
 Mothers’ education
  Post-secondary education    1    1    1    1
  No education 1.68 0.47 5.4 (2.15–13.35)** 1.77 0.62 5.8 (1.74–19.66)* 1.71 0.72 5.5 (1.35–22.67)* 0.47 1.09 1.6 (0.19–13.64)
  Primary education 0.76 0.39 2.1 (0.98–4.61) 0.57 0.52 1.8 (0.64–4.88) 0.46 0.60 1.6 (0.49–5.18) −0.40 0.80 0.7 (0.14–3.25)
  Secondary education 1.18 0.45 3.2 (1.35–7.78)* 1.05 0.55 2.9 (0.97–8.44) 0.92 0.65 2.5 (0.71–8.97) 0.69 0.85 2.0 (0.38–10.63)
 Type of occupation
  Business    1    1    1    1
  Farmer −1.11 0.48 0.3 (0.13–0.84)* − 1.79 0.62 0.2 (0.05–0.57)* −1.93 0.77 0.1 (0.03–0.66)* −2.43 1.22 0.1 (0.01–1.95)
  Employed (Government/NGO) − 0.14 0.42 0.9 (0.39–1.97) −0.38 0.50 0.7 (0.26–1.81) −0.28 0.58 0.8 (0.25–2.35) −0.35 0.85 0.7 (0.13–3.69)
(0.03–0.66)* (0.03–0.66)*Others* −0.97 0.59 2.6 (0.83–8.45) − 0.16 0.82 0.9 (0.17–4.27) 0.21 0.99 1.2 (0.18–8.56) 0.43 1.72 1.5 (0.05–44.77)
 Parents alive
  Yes    1    1    1    1
  No 0.06 0.31 1.1 (0.57–1.95) .26 .39 1.3 (0.60–2.77) 0.19 0.58 1.2 (0.39–3.75) 0.78 0.84 2.2 (0.42–11.39)
Behavioural variables
 Age at first sex
  Older age       1    1    1
  Younger age     1.66 0.78 5.2 (1.14–24.04)* 2.17 0.89 8.7 (1.53–49.69)* 1.84 1.34 6.3 (0.46–86.18)
 Multiple sexual partner
  Yes       1    1    1
  No     −2.49 0.47 0.1 (0.03–0.21)** −3.05 0.59 0.5 (0.02–0.15)** −3.49 0.83 0.03 (0.01–0.16)***
 Frequency of sex per week       1    1    1
  More than two times     −1.79 0.45 0.2 (0.07–0.40)** −2.06 0.55 0.1 (0.04–0.37)** −1.95 0.76 0.1 (0.03–0.63)**
  Less than two times             
 Contraceptive use
  Rare use       1    1    1
  Often use     −1.86 0.46 0.2 (0.06–0.38)** − 1.87 0.54 0.2 (0.05–0.44)** −1.93 0.73 0.1 (0.04–0.61)**
Familial Variables
 Socio-economic status
  High          1    1
  Low        0.52 0.64 1.7 (0.48–5.96) 0.68 0.83 2.0 (0.39–10.05)
  Medium        −0.74 0.70 0.5 (0.12–1.89) −0.34 0.93 0.7 (0.12–4.36)
 Marital status
  Married          1    1
  Not married        −2.12 0.50 0.1 (0.05–0.32)** −2.38 0.75 0.1 (0.02–0.41)**
 Parental separation/divorce
  Separated          1    1
  Not separated        −0.56 0.52 0.6 (0.21–1.57) −1.40 0.73 0.3 (0.06–1.03)
 Person living with
  Live with relative          1    1
  Live with both parents        −0.13 0.76 0.9 (0.20–3.91) 0.12 0.98 1.1 (0.17–7.78)
  Live with only father        −0.24 0.91 0.8 (0.13–4.66) −1.72 1.57 0.2 (0.01–3.87)
  Live with only mother        0.65 0.74 1.9 (0.45–8.15) 1.04 0.97 2.8 (0.43–18.76)
  Live with husband        0.41 0.80 1.5 (0.31–7.17) 1.26 1.13 3.5 (0.38–32.46)
 Domestic violence
  Yes          1    1
  No        −0.75 0.48 0.5 (0.18–1.22) −1.13 0.71 0.3 (0.08–1.29)
 Physical neglect
  Yes          1    1
  No        −0.37 0.45 0.7 (0.29–1.69) −0.56 0.66 0.6 (0.16–2.09)
Social Variables
 Peer pressure
  Yes             1
  No           −1.95 0.76 0.1 (0.04–0.69)**
 Sexual abuse
  Yes             1
  No           −1.79 0.72 0.2 (0.04–0.69)**
 Control over sex
  Yes             1
  No           4.04 0.81 57.0 (11.74–276.99)***
 Awareness on ASRH
  Yes             1
  No           0.70 0.70 2.0 (0.51–7.91)
 Perception of culture
  Sex allowed before age 18             1
  Sex not allowed before age 18           −0.67 0.64 0.5 (0.15–1.77)
Effect modification by marital status
 Age group
  Older teenagers*marital status           −5.28 0.82 0.01 (0.01–0.03)***
  Age at first sex             
  Younger teenagers*marital status           −0.246 0.70 0.78 (0.20–3.07)
 Place of residence
  Rural*marital status           0.77 0.29 2.17 (1.23–3.82)**
  School attendance             
  Not in school*marital status           3.93 0.67 50.98 (13.86–187.55)**
 Control over sex
  No control*marital status           3.08 0.55 21.81 (7.46–63.76)***
 Socio-economic status
  Low*marital status           0.41 0.57 1.51 (0.32–0.42)***
  Medium*marital status           0.66 0.12 0.12 (0.49–4.59)
 Domestic violence
  No violence*marital status           −0.79 0.31 0.45 (0.25–0.83)**
 Physical neglect
  No neglect*marital status           −0.98 0.30 0.38 (0.21–0.67)***
 Parental divorce
  No divorce*marital status           −0.93 0.28 0.40 (0.23–0.69)***
 Awareness
  No awareness*marital status           1.51 0.32 4.52 (2.43–8.43)***
-2Log Likelihood    297.4    146.0    36.6    46.8
Hosmer & Lemeshow test    P = 0.35    P = 0.24    P = 0.49    P = 0.82
Nagelkereke pseudo R2    56.5%    19.0%    6.0%    27.2%
Classification accuracy    82.2%    92.2%    95.6%    96.9%
  1. 1 = reference category, ***p < 0.001, **p < 0.01, *p < 0.05, AOR adjusted odds ratio, CI confidence interval, B regression coefficient, SE standard error, others* = builders, carpenters and welders, ASRH adolescent sexual and reproductive health