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Table 3 Analysis of demographic, behavioural, familial and societal factors with teenage pregnancy

From: Predictors of teenage pregnancy among girls aged 13–19 years in Uganda: a community based case-control study

Variables Pregnant girls n (%) Test statistics X2 (df)  
Demographic variables
 Age group
  Older teenagers (15–19) (N = 378) 152 (40.2) 37.87*** (1)  
  Younger teenagers (13–14) (N = 102) 8 (7.8)   
 Place of residence
  Rural (N = 195) 82 (42.1) 11.23*** (1)  
  Urban (N = 285) 78 (27.4)   
 School attendance by teenage girls
  In school (N = 246) 8 (3.3) 205.48*** (1)  
  Not in school (N = 234) 152 (65.0)   
 Father’s education
  No education (N = 33) 21 (63.6) 16.54*** (3)  
  Primary education (N = 104) 38 (36.5)   
  Secondary education (N = 106) 30 (28.3)   
  Post-secondary education (N = 237) 71 (30.0)   
 Mother’s education
  No education (N = 81) 46 (56.8) 31.87*** (3)  
  Primary education (N = 134) 44 (32.8)   
  Secondary education (N = 105) 37 (35.2)   
  Post-secondary education (N = 160) 33 (20.6)   
 Type of parents’ occupation
  Farmer (N = 157) 46 (29.3) 19.68*** (3)  
  Business (N = 150) 45 (30.0)   
  Government/employed (N = 53) 32 (60.4)   
  Others* (N = 120) 37 (30.8)   
Behavioural variables
 Age at first sex
  Younger age (13–14) (N = 35) 23 (65.7) 7.10** (1)  
  Older age (15–19) (N = 325) 137 (42.2)   
 Multiple sexual partners
  Yes (N = 111) 89 (80.2) 83.00*** (1)  
  No (N = 249) 71 (28.5)   
 Frequency of sex in a week
  Less than two times (N = 244) 70 (28.7) 76.13*** (1)  
  More than two times (N = 116) 90 (77.6)   
 Frequency of alcohol use per week
  Yes (N = 130) 52 (40.0) 2.21 (1)  
  No (N = 56) 29 (51.8)   
 Frequency of contraceptive use
  Never (N = 112) 20 (17.9) 46.55*** (1)  
  Rarely (N = 248) 140 (56.5)   
Familial Variables
 Socio-economic status of families
  High (N = 133) 38 (28.6) 7.62* (2)  
  Medium (N = 152) 43 (28.3)   
  Low (N = 195) 79 (40.5)   
 Marital status of teenage girls
  Married (N = 167) 86 (51.5) 38.02*** (1)  
  Not married (N = 313) 74 (23.6)   
 Parental separation/divorce
  Yes (N = 113) 54 (47.8) 13.90*** (1)  
  No (N = 367) 106 (28.9)   
 Person teenager is living with
  Live with both parents (N = 212) 54 (25.5) 21.43*** (4)  
  Live with only father (N = 39) 11 (28.2)   
  Live with only mother (N = 92) 44 (47.8)   
  Live with husband (N = 66) 31 (47.0)   
  Live with relative (N = 71) 20 (28.2)   
 Domestic violence in families
  Yes (N = 317) 122 (38.5) 11.15*** (1)  
  No (N = 163) 38 (23.3)   
 Physical neglect of teenage girls
  Yes (N = 275) 108 (39.3) 10.22*** (1)  
  No (N = 205) 126 (25.4)   
 Parents alive
  Yes (N = 347) 98 (28.2) 14.61*** (1)  
  No (N = 133) 62 (46.6)   
Societal Variables
 Peer pressure among teenagers
  Yes (N = 270) 116 (43.0) 25.75*** (1)  
  No (N = 210) 44 (21.0)   
 Sexual abuse of teenage girls
  Yes (N = 162) 97 (59.9) 77.53*** (1)  
  No (N = 318) 63 (19.8)   
 Control over sex among partners
  Yes (N = 165) 19 (11.5) 133.77*** (1)  
  No (N = 195) 141 (72.3)   
 Sexual and reproductive awareness
  Yes (N = 321) 78 (24.3) 35.59*** (1)  
  No (N = 159) 82 (51.6)   
 Perception of cultural norm on sex
  Yes allowed before 18 (N = 256) 106 (41.1) 16.09*** (1)  
  Not allowed below 18 (N = 224) 54 (24.1)   
  1. ***p < 0.001, **p < 0.01, *p < 0.05, others* include carpenters, welders and builders, x2 chi square test, df degree of freedom, N = number of participants, and n = number of cases (pregnant girls)