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Table 3 Results of hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis to predict stress during the 2nd and 3rd trimester by proximal risk factors of the 2nd trimester

From: Gestational weight gain, physical activity, sleep problems, substance use, and food intake as proximal risk factors of stress and depressive symptoms during pregnancy

  2 nd trimester – Cross-sectional 3 rd trimester – Longitudinal
Variable n B (SE) β R 2 F R 2 change n B (SE) β R 2 F R 2 change
GWG 458       344      
Block 1     0.02 3.06* 0.02     0.03 5.26** 0.03
 Age   −0.03 (0.03) −0.04        
 Pregravid BMI   0.07 (0.03) 0.10*      0.06 (0.03) 0.10    
 Pregnancy intention   −0.67 (0.36) −0.09      −1.01 (0.39) − 0.14**    
Block 2     0.03 3.99** 0.01     0.03 3.54* 0.00
 GWG   0.10 (0.04) 0.12*      0.01 (0.04) 0.02    
Physical activity 342       275      
Block 1     0.00 0.51 0.00     0.01 0.98 0.01
 Age   −0.01 (0.04) −0.01        
 Pregravid BMI   0.04 (0.04) 0.05      0.03 (0.04) 0.04    
 Pregnancy intention   −0.28 (0.43) − 0.04      −0.55 (0.45) −0.07    
Block 2     0.03 1.86 0.03     0.01 0.84 0.01
 Physical activity reference group: once a week
 Less than once a month   1.01 (0.39) 0.15**      0.43 (0.40) 0.07    
 Once a month   0.23 (0.48) 0.03      0.65 (0.51) 0.08    
 Daily   1.16 (0.54) 0.12*      0.33 (0.58) 0.04    
Sleep problems 292       225      
Block 1     0.03 2.51 0.03     0.07 7.87*** 0.07
 Age   −0.01 (0.04) −0.02        
 Pregravid BMI   0.07 (0.04) 0.09      0.09 (0.04) 0.14*    
 Pregnancy intention   −0.97 (0.46) −0.12*      −1.51 (0.47) −0.21**    
Block 2     0.09 7.26*** 0.07     0.09 7.37*** 0.02
 Sleep problems   0.20 (0.04) 0.27***      0.12 (0.05) 0.16*    
Alcohol use 399       309      
Block 1     0.03 3.85* 0.03     0.04 6.80** 0.04
 Age   −0.03 (0.04) −0.04        
 Pregravid BMI   0.09 (0.03) 0.13*      0.10 (0.04) 0.15**    
 Pregnancy intention   −0.74 (0.40) −0.09      −1.03 (0.42) −0.14*    
Block 2     0.03 3.05* 0.00     0.04 4.69** 0.00
 Alcohol use reference group: non-drinker
 Quitter   −0.28 (0.35) −0.04      −0.25 (0.35) −0.04    
Cigarette smoking 364       275      
Block 1     0.02 2.05 0.02     0.02 2.36 0.02
 Age   0.02 (0.04) 0.03        
 Pregravid BMI   0.07 (0.04) 0.10      0.07 (0.04) 0.11    
 Pregnancy intention   −0.61 (0.44) −0.07      −0.58 (0.47) −0.07    
Block 2     0.02 2.16 0.01     0.02 1.59 0.00
 Cigarette smoking reference group: non-smoker
 Quitter   0.67 (0.42) 0.08      0.12 (0.44) 0.02    
Snack food intake 389       292      
Block 1     0.02 2.02 0.02     0.03 4.23* 0.03
 Age   −0.02 (0.04) −0.03        
 Pregravid BMI   0.07 (0.04) 0.10*      0.07 (0.04) 0.10    
 Pregnancy intention   −0.39 (0.39) −0.05      −0.94 (0.43) −0.13*    
Block 2     0.04 3.99** 0.02     0.03 3.27* 0.00
 Snack food intake   0.42 (0.13) 0.16**      0.19 (0.16) 0.07    
  1. Note. n number of pregnant women included in the model. B (SE) estimated value of raw (unstandardized) regression coefficient (standard error). β population value (standardized) of regression coefficient. R2 coefficient of multiple determination. F Fisher’s ratio. BMI body mass index, kg/m2. GWG gestational weight gain. ***p < .001. **p < .01. *p < .05