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Table 2 Results of hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis to predict depressive symptoms during the 2nd and 3rd trimester by proximal risk factors of the 2nd trimester

From: Gestational weight gain, physical activity, sleep problems, substance use, and food intake as proximal risk factors of stress and depressive symptoms during pregnancy

Variable 2 nd trimester – Cross-sectional 3 rd trimester – Longitudinal
n B (SE) β R 2 F R 2 change n B (SE) β R 2 F R 2 change
GWG 458       344      
Block 1     0.03 4.67** 0.03     0.01 2.24 0.01
 Age   −0.06 (0.04) −0.08        
 Pregravid BMI   0.08 (0.03) 0.11*      0.08 (0.04) 0.10    
 Pregnancy intention   −0.79 (0.38) −0.09*      −0.38 (0.46) −0.04    
Block 2     0.04 4.22 0.01     0.02 2.02 0.01
 GWG   0.07 (0.04) 0.08      0.06 (0.05) 0.07    
Physical activity 342       275      
Block 1     0.02 1.79 0.02     0.01 0.65 0.01
 Age   −0.06 (0.04) −0.08        
 Pregravid BMI   0.05 (0.04) 0.07      0.05 (0.05) 0.07    
 Pregnancy intention   −0.44 (0.46) − 0.05      −0.02 (0.52) −0.01    
Block 2     0.03 1.79 0.02     0.04 2.04 0.03
 Physical activity reference group: once a week
Less than once a month   1.05 (0.42) 0.15      1.23 (0.45) 0.17**    
 Once a month   0.34 (0.52) 0.04*      0.30 (0.59) 0.03    
 Daily   0.14 (0.58) 0.01      0.36 (0.66) −0.03    
Sleep problems 292       225      
Block 1     0.07 7.02*** 0.07     0.02 2.48 0.02
 Age   −0.06 (0.05) −0.08        
 Pregravid BMI   0.12 (0.04) 0.15**      0.08 (0.05) 0.11    
 Pregnancy intention   −1.58 (0.49) −0.18**      − 0.81 (0.56) − 0.10    
Block 2     0.26 25.32*** 0.19     0.10 8.55*** 0.08
 Sleep problems   0.38 (0.04) 0.45***      0.26 (0.06) 0.30***    
Alcohol use 399       309      
Block 1     0.02 4.45** 0.02     0.02 3.69* 0.02
 Age   −0.07 (0.04) −0.09        
 Pregravid BMI   0.10 (0.04) 0.14**      0.11 (0.04) 0.15**    
 Pregnancy intention   −0.58 (0.43) − 0.07      −0.32 (0.50) −0.04    
Block 2     0.04 3.91** 0.01     0.03 2.81* 0.00
 Alcohol use reference group: non-drinker
 Quitter   −0.56 (0.37) −0.08      −0.43 (0.42) −0.06    
Cigarette smoking 364       275      
Block 1     0.02 2.80* 0.02     0.01 1.02 0.01
 Age   −0.03 (0.04) −0.04        
 Pregravid BMI   0.09 (0.04) 0.11*      0.06 (0.05) 0.08    
 Pregnancy intention   −0.75 (0.47) − 0.08      −0.28 (0.57) −0.03    
Block 2     0.03 2.43* 0.01     0.01 0.95 0.00
 Cigarette smoking reference group: non-smoker
 Quitter   0.52 (0.45) 0.06      0.48 (0.53) 0.06    
Snack food intake 389       292      
Block 1     0.03 4.23** 0.03     0.03 4.13* 0.03
 Age   −0.05 (0.04) −0.06        
 Pregravid BMI   0.11 (0.04) 0.14**      0.12 (0.04) 0.16**    
 Pregnancy intention   −0.54 (0.41) − 0.07      − 0.42 (0.50) − 0.05    
Block 2     0.04 4.53* 0.01     0.03 3.15* 0.00
 Snack food intake   0.32 (0.14) 0.12*      0.21 (0.19) 0.06    
  1. Note. n number of pregnant women included in the model. B (SE) estimated value of raw (unstandardized) regression coefficient (standard error). β population value (standardized) of regression coefficient. R2 coefficient of multiple determination. F Fisher’s ratio. BMI body mass index, kg/m2. GWG gestational weight gain. ***p < .001. **p < .01. *p < .05