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Table 3 Risk of giving birth to small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants by changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure from early to mid-gestation

From: Elevated diastolic blood pressure until mid-gestation is associated with preeclampsia and small-for-gestational-age birth: a population-based register study

cBP changes until mid-gestation SGA births total
n % Crude OR (95% CI)d Adjustede OR (95% CI)
Systolic BPc
 Lowereda 40,285 3.1 1.0 1.0
 Elevatedb 24,200 2.9 0.9 (0.9–1.0) 1.0 (0.9–1.1)
Diastolic BPc
 Lowereda 46,473 2.8 1.0 1.0
 Elevatedb 18,009 3.5 1.2 (1.1–1.4) 1.3 (1.2–1.5)
  1. SGA defined as birth weight of more than two standard deviations below the mean weight for gestational age. cBP Blood pressure. The changes in systolic and diastolic BP were categorized in the following groups; a) lowered BP, defined as no change or decrease by 1 mmHg or more and b) elevated BP, defined as an increase by 1 mmHg or more between early to mid-gestation. dOR (95% CI): Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. eAdjusted for mean arterial blood pressure in early gestation, maternal body mass index, smoking, age, recurrent miscarriages before the index pregnancy and country of birth