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Table 1 Calculations of total body surface area exposed to ultra violet B radiation: Combination of Mosteller and Wallace Formula

From: Optimizing ultraviolet B radiation exposure to prevent vitamin D deficiency among pregnant women in the tropical zone: report from cohort study on vitamin D status and its impact during pregnancy in Indonesia

  Clothing Exposed area Percentage
Without hijab Long sleeved top, long bottom (trousers or skirt) Head, neck, hands, feet 9 + (2*2.5) + (2*2) = 18
Short sleeved top, short bottom (trousers or skirt) Head, neck, part of upper arms, lower arms, hands, part of upper thighs, knees, calves, shinbones, feet 9 + (2*6) + (2*13.5) = 48
Short sleeved top, long bottom (trousers or skirt) Head, neck, part of upper arms, lower arms, hands, feet 9 + (2*6) + (2*2) = 25
With hijab Long top and bottom without socks Face, hands, feet 4.5 + (2*2.5) + (2*2) = 13,5
Long top and bottom with socks Face, hands 3 + (2*2.5) = 8