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Table 4 The association between water intake from different sources and dietary characteristics among breastfeeding women g

From: Association between total water intake and dietary intake of pregnant and breastfeeding women in China: a cross-sectional survey

Variables Total water Plain water Water from beverage Water from food
β(95%CI)h Pi β(95%CI)h Pi β(95%CI)h Pi β(95%CI)h Pi
Energy (100 kcal)g 54 (34,75) < 0.001** 5(− 22,13) 0.612 12 (8,16) < 0.001** 47 (37,57) < 0.001**
Protein(5 g)gj 53 (34,72) < 0.001** 2(−14,19) 0.470 10 (5,14) < 0.001** 41 (32,51) < 0.001**
Fat(5 g)gj 58 (30,87) < 0.001** −5(−28,19) 0.953 17 (11,23) < 0.001** 46 (31,61) < 0.001**
Carbohydrate(5 g)gj 16 (9,23) < 0.001** −2(−8,4) 0.213 3 (2,4) < 0.001** 15 (12,18) < 0.001**
Fiber(5 g)gj 212 (142,281) < 0.001** −2(−63,60) 0.766 24 (8,40) < 0.001** 190 (161,219) < 0.001**
Na+(100 mg)gj 54 (26,83) < 0.001** −15(−38,8) 0.693 15 (10,21) < 0.001** 53 (39,67) < 0.001**
Energy from protein (5%)g 208(− 136,553) 0.234 173(−92,439) 0.197 −25(−98,47) 0.487 41 (5) 0.547
Energy from fat (5%)g −35(− 208,137) 0.686 −8(− 140,125) 0.910 38 (3,74) 0.034* 46 (8) 0.182
Energy from carbohydrate (5%)g 15(−104,134) 0.808 −10(− 102,82) 0.831 −17(−42,7) 0.165 15 (2) 0.220
  1. gThe multiple liner regression models were adjusted for age (continuous), BMI (categorized variables), working status (housewife, government employment, professionals, service, other), educational level (high school or below, college, graduate or up), physical activity (low, middle, high), and feeding modes (mixed feeding, breastfeeding); h All values represented βs (95%CI) which were associated with units of measurement given in parentheses for each independent variable (for example, when there was a 100 kcal/day increase in energy intake, TWI would increase by 54 mL, plain water intake 5 mL, water intake from beverages 12 mL, and water intake from foods 47 mL); i P Values obtained from the multiple linear regression analyses indicated the significance of the association of each independent variable with all water variables, ** P Values < 0.001; *P Values < 0.05; j besides the covariates as above mentioned, total daily energy (continuous) intake was also included in the model as an independent variable