Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 1 Characteristics of participants included in the study, stratified by gestational weight gain (GWG)a

From: Women’s recall of health care provider counselling on gestational weight gain (GWG): a prospective, population-based study

Characteristics All women Adequate GWG Inadequate GWG Excessive GWG p-value
Total sample (N)b n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%)
2909   1045 (35.9) 511 (17.6) 1353 (46.5)
Socio-demographic and anthropometric characteristics
 Maternal age (years) 2843      
  Mean ± SD   30.7 ± 4.5 30.8 ± 4.6 30.7 ± 4.6 30.6 ± 4.4 0.639
  ≤ 35-year-old   2277 (80.0) 816 (80.3) 394 (79.0) 1067 (80.3) 0.783
  > 35-year-old   566 (20.0) 200 (19.7) 105 (21.0) 261 (19.7)  
 Ethnicity 2902      0.070
  White/Caucasian   2307 (79.5) 843 (80.7) 386 (75.8) 1078 (79.9)  
  Other   595 (20.5) 201 (19.3) 123 (24.2) 271 (20.1)
 Time in Canada 2893      0.006*
  Born/ lived in Canada ≥ 5years   2626 (90.8) 943 (90.6) 442 (87.4) 1241 (92.2)  
  Lived in Canada <5 years   267 (9.2) 98 (9.4) 64 (12.6) 105 (7.8)
 Education 2904      0.947
  High-school or less   285 (9.8) 100 (9.6) 50 (9.8) 135 (10.0)  
  Some or completed post-secondary   2619 (90.2) 943 (90.4) 460 (90.2) 1216 (90.0)
 Household Income 2816      0.172
  < $60 000   467 (16.6) 153 (15.2) 94 (19.0) 220 (16.8)  
  ≥ $60 000   2349 (83.4) 856 (84.8) 402 (81.0) 1091 (83.2)
 Employment status 1933      0.042*
  Employed full time   1340 (69.3) 496 (66.5) 215 (65.7) 656 (72.8)  
  Employed part-time   497 (25.7) 198 (28.1) 95 (29.1) 204 (22.6)
  Casual employment   96 (5.0) 38 (5.4) 17 (5.2) 41 (4.6)
 Pre-pregnancy weight (kg) (mean ± SD) 2909 70.0 ± 14.2 65.9 ± 12.5 68.1 ± 16.0 73.8 ± 13.7 <0.001*
 Pre-pregnancy BMI (kg/m2) (mean ±SD) 2909 24.2 ± 5.0 24.1 ± 4.3 24.9 ± 5.6 26.7 ± 4.6 <0.001*
aMaternal pre-pregnancy BMI (kg/m2) 2909      <0.001*
  Underweight (<18.5 kg/m2)   132 (4.5) 68 (6.5) 29 (5.7) 35 (2.6)  
  Normal weight (18.5- 24.9 kg/m2)   1808 (62.2) 761 (72.8) 356 (69.7) 691 (51.1)
  Overweight (25-29.9 kg/m2)   647 (22.2) 147 (14.1) 56 (11.0) 444 (32.8)
  Obese (≥30.0 kg/m2)   322 (11.1) 69 (6.6) 70 (13.7) 183 (13.5)
Obstetrical characteristics
 Parity n (%) 2893      0.220
  Nulliparous   1400 (48.4) 497 (47.6) 234 (45.8) 669 (50.0)  
  Multiparous   1493 (51.6) 547 (52.4) 277 (54.2) 669 (50.0)
 Gestational age at delivery (mean ±SD) 2737 39.2 ± 1.6 39.3 ± 1.7 39.0 ± 1.7 39.2 ± 1.6 0.053
 Preterm birth rate n (%) 2909      0.357
  < 37 weeks GA   148 (5.4) 48 (4.8) 31 (6.6) 69 (5.5)  
  ≥ 37 weeks GA   2589 (94.6) 955 (95.2) 439 (93.4) 1195 (94.5)
 Mode of delivery n (%)       
  Vaginal (spontaneous or assisted) 2754 2089 (75.9) 363 (17.4) 787 (37.7) 939 (44.9) 0.045*
  Caesarean Section   665 (24.1) 109 (16.4) 221 (33.2) 335 (50.4)  
   Elective C-section   323 (12.8) 112 (12.3) 54 (12.4) 157 (13.3)  
   Emergency C-section   331 (13.1) 111 (12.2) 51 (11.7) 169 (14.3)  
 Type of labour 2424      
  Spontaneous labour   1472 (60.7) 561 (64.4) 251 (60.5) 660 (57.9) 0.047*
  Induction of labour   666 (27.5) 211 (24.3) 115 (27.7) 340 (29.8)  
  No labour   286 (11.8) 97 (11.2) 49 (11.8) 140 (12.3)  
Lifestyle characteristics
 Exercise and active living in pregnancy 2908      0.001*
 Frequency of exercise/week       
  0 to 2 times   1620 (55.7) 554 (53.0) 262 (51.3) 804 (59.5)  
  3 or more times   1288 (44.3) 491 (47.0) 294 (48.7) 548 (40.5)  
 Comparison to frequency of exercise/week prior to pregnancy 2909      <0.001*
  Less often   1774 (61.0) 634 (60.7) 264 (51.7) 876 (64.7)  
  More often   178 (6.1) 59 (5.6) 30 (5.9) 89 (6.6)
  About the same   957 (32.9) 352 (33.7) 217 (42.5) 388 (28.7)
 Substance abuse in pregnancy
  Smoking 2701 302 (11.2) 101 (10.3) 38 (8.0) 163 (13.1) 0.006*
  Alcohol consumption 2704 1331 (49.2) 500 (51.1) 213 (44.7) 618 (49.5) 0.075
  Recreational drugs use 2905 112 (3.9) 33 (3.2) 11 (2.2) 68 (5.0) 0.006*
  1. aBMI and GWG classified according to Institute of Medicine 2009 Guidelines and Health Canada Guideline
  2. bMay not add to N = 2909 participants due to missing data
  3. SD standard deviation
  4. *p-value < 0.05 significant