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Table 1 Characteristics of index infants and their mothers, Texas 2006–2012

From: Interpregnancy change in body mass index and infant outcomes in Texas: a population-based study

  Na (%) or Mean (SD)
All Infants (N = 2481) LGA (N = 240) SGA (N = 199) PTB (N = 255)
Mean gestational age (weeks) 38.3 (1.8) 38.0 (2.0) 38.5 (1.6) 34.5 (2.4)
Sex
 Male 1239 (49.9) 129 (53.8) 99 (49.8) 115 (45.1)
 Female 1242 (50.1) 111 (46.3) 100 (50.3) 140 (54.9)
Birth order
 2 1176 (48.4) 95 (40.6) 95 (47.7) 102 (41.5)
  > 2 1255 (51.6) 139 (59.4) 104 (52.3) 144 (58.5)
Payment method
 Private insurance 852 (34.4) 95 (39.8) 53 (26.6) 72 (28.2)
 Medicaid 1229 (49.6) 99 (41.4) 115 (57.8) 143 (56.1)
 Self-pay 229 (9.2) 24 (10.0) 17 (8.5) 19 (7.5)
 Other 169 (6.8) 21 (8.8) 14 (7.0) 21 (8.2)
Maternal race/ethnicity
 Non-Hispanic White 812 (32.7) 94 (39.2) 49 (24.6) 82 (32.2)
 Hispanic 1279 (51.6) 131 (54.6) 98 (49.3) 124 (48.6)
 Non-Hispanic Black 277 (11.2) NR 39 (19.6) 42 (16.5)
 Other 113 (4.6) NR 13 (6.5) 7 (2.8)
Age (years)
  < 20 163 (6.6) 15 (6.3) 14 (7.0) 21 (8.2)
 20–24 690 (27.8) 43 (17.9) 63 (31.7) 86 (33.7)
 25–29 758 (30.6) 84 (35.0) 72 (36.2) 62 (24.3)
 30–34 581 (23.4) 60 (25.0) 34 (17.1) 63 (24.7)
  ≥ 35 289 (11.7) 38 (15.8) 16 (8.0) 23 (9.0)
Marital status
 Married 1526 (61.5) 165 (68.8) 109 (54.8) 144 (56.5)
 Not married 955 (38.5) 75 (31.3) 90 (45.2) 111 (43.5)
Education
  < High school 666 (26.9) 68 (28.3) 64 (32.2) 72 (28.2)
 High school 683 (27.5) 68 (28.3) 61 (30.7) 82 (32.2)
  > High school 1131 (45.6) 104 (43.3) 74 (37.2) 101 (39.6)
Smokingb
 Yes 153 (6.2) 11 (4.6) 17 (8.5) 21 (8.3)
 No 2326 (93.8) 229 (95.4) 182 (91.5) 233 (91.7)
Hypertensionc
 Yes 105 (4.2) 13 (5.4) 10 (5.0) 23 (9.0)
 No 2372 (95.8) 227 (94.6) 189 (95.0) 232 (91.0)
Mean interpregnancy interval (months) 21.4 (15.1) 22.1 (15.0) 19.6 (14.4) 19.6 (14.9)
Interpregnancy interval (months)
  < 6 318 (12.8) 25 (10.4) 35 (17.6) 46 (18.0)
 6 to < 12 474 (19.1) 40 (16.7) 40 (20.1) 52 (20.4)
 12 to < 18 452 (18.2) 50 (20.8) 35 (17.6) 40 (15.7)
  ≥ 18 1237 (49.9) 125 (52.1) 89 (44.7) 117 (45.9)
Gestational weight gaind
 Inadequate 596 (24.1) 32 (13.3) 69 (34.7) 88 (34.5)
 Adequate 841 (34.0) 78 (32.5) 73 (36.7) 96 (37.7)
 Excessive 1040 (42.0) 130 (54.2) 57 (28.6) 71 (27.8)
Height (m)
  < 1.60 1038 (41.8) 80 (33.3) 88 (44.2) 117 (45.9)
 1.60 to < 1.65 699 (28.2) 58 (24.2) 66 (33.2) 68 (26.7)
 1.65 to < 1.70 434 (17.5) 54 (22.5) 32 (16.1) 42 (16.5)
  ≥ 1.70 310 (12.5) 48 (20.0) 13 (6.5) 28 (11.0)
Mean prepregnancy BMI - sibling pregnancy (kg/m2) 25.6 (5.8) 27.7 (6.2) 25.4 (5.7) 25.2 (5.8)
Prepregnancy BMI - sibling pregnancy (kg/m2)
 Underweight (< 18.5) 99 (4.0) NR 10 (5.0) 16 (6.3)
 Normal (18.5–24.9) 1304 (52.6) 97 (40.4) 101 (50.8) 135 (52.9)
 Overweight (25.0–29.9) 618 (24.9) NR 50 (25.1) 54 (21.2)
 Obese (≥30.0) 460 (18.5) 72 (30.0) 38 (19.1) 50 (19.6)
Mean prepregnancy BMI - index pregnancy (kg/m2) 26.7 (6.3) 28.9 (6.7) 26.3 (6.1) 26.2 (6.6)
Prepregnancy BMI - index pregnancy (kg/m2)
 Underweight (< 18.5) 64 (2.6) NR NR 9 (3.5)
 Normal (18.5–24.9) 1135 (45.8) 80 (33.3) 99 (49.8) 131 (51.4)
 Overweight (25.0–29.9) 676 (27.3) NR NR 56 (22.0)
 Obese (≥30.0) 606 (24.4) 85 (35.4) 47 (23.6) 59 (23.1)
Mean interpregnancy change in BMI (kg/m2) 1.1 (3.3) 1.2 (3.7) 0.8 (3.6) 1.0 (3.7)
Interpregnancy change in BMI (kg/m2)
  < −1 430 (17.3) 38 (15.8) 45 (22.6) 64 (25.1)
  < −1 to < 0 305 (12.3) 24 (10.0) 26 (13.1) 33 (12.9)
 0 to < 1 677 (27.3) 64 (26.7) 41 (20.6) 60 (23.5)
 1 to < 2 319 (12.9) 37 (15.4) 27 (13.6) 35 (13.7)
 2 to < 3 224 (9.0) 31 (12.9) 24 (12.1) 16 (6.3)
  ≥ 3 526 (21.2) 46 (19.2) 36 (18.1) 47 (18.4)
  1. Abbreviations: BMI body mass index (kg/m2), LGA large for gestational age, NR not reported due to small cell size and complementary suppression, PTB preterm birth, SD standard deviation, SGA small for gestational age
  2. aNumbers may not sum to the total due to missing values
  3. bAny smoking during the three months before or during pregnancy
  4. cPregestational or gestational
  5. dPer the Institute of Medicine BMI-specific guidelines for adequate weight gain (in pounds): underweight, 28–40; normal, 25–35; overweight, 15–25; obese, 11–20 [12]