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Table 2 Biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress at baseline and after 6-wk intervention in women with gestational diabetes who received either magnesium-zinc-calcium-vitamin D or placebo

From: The effects of magnesium-zinc-calcium-vitamin D co-supplementation on biomarkers of inflammation, oxidative stress and pregnancy outcomes in gestational diabetes

  Placebo group (n = 30) Magnesium-zinc-calcium-vitamin D group (n = 30) P1
Wk0 Wk6 Change Wk0 Wk6 Change  
FPG (mg/dL) 95.1 ± 5.4 94.2 ± 5.7 -0.9 ± 4.5 93.1 ± 2.5 88.8 ± 4.7 -4.3±4.9 0.008
Magnesium (mg/dL) 1.7 ± 0.2 1.7 ± 0.2 − 0.05 ± 0.1 1.8 ± 0.1 1.8 ± 0.2 0.1 ± 0.2 0.002
Zinc (mg/dL) 83.9 ± 8.1 84.3 ± 8.1 0.4 ± 2.6 80.3 ± 8.8 84.4 ± 9.1 4.1 ± 1.8 < 0.001
Calcium (mg/dL) 9.1 ± 0.5 9.2 ± 0.5 0.1 ± 0.1 9.1 ± 0.4 9.4 ± 0.4 0.3 ± 0.4 0.001
25-OH-vitamin D (ng/mL) 13.5 ± 3.6 17.3 ± 3.1 3.8 ± 1.2 12.6 ± 4.2 18.7 ± 4.7 6.1 ± 3.5 0.001
hs-CRP (mg/L) 6.3 ± 2.0 7.0 ± 2.6 0.8 ± 2.0 6.9 ± 1.7 5.7 ± 3.7 −1.2 ± 3.5 0.01
Total nitrite (μmol/L) 40.9 ± 10.3 41.2 ± 17.7 0.3 ± 15.3 43.1 ± 5.5 44.3 ± 6.1 1.2 ± 7.1 0.76
TAC (mmol/L) 694.8 ± 111.6 678.4 ± 89.9 −16.3 ± 93.5 619.4 ± 81.1 657.6 ± 98.1 38.2 ± 76.5 0.01
GSH (μmol/L) 475.9 ± 112.0 466.9 ± 109.2 −9.0 ± 96.6 474.2 ± 121.7 486.1 ± 115.6 11.9 ± 63.7 0.32
MDA (μmol/L) 3.0 ± 0.7 3.3 ± 1.3 0.3 ± 1.1 2.9 ± 0.3 2.6 ± 0.2 −0.3 ± 0.3 0.003
  1. All values are means± SDs
  2. 1P values represent the time × group interaction (computed by analysis of the repeated measures ANOVA)
  3. FPG fasting plasma glucose, GDM gestational diabetes mellitus, GSH total glutathione, hs-CRP high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, MDA malondialdehyde, TAC total antioxidant capacity