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Table 1 Associations between birth outcomes and infant and maternal characteristics for 28,119 WA Aboriginal singletons born 1998–2010

From: A large proportion of poor birth outcomes among Aboriginal Western Australians are attributable to smoking, alcohol and substance misuse, and assault

Characteristic Overall (column %) Small for gestational age (row %) Preterm birth (row %) Perinatal death (row %)
Yes No Yes No Yes No
Risk factors of interest
 Maternal smoking Yes 13,292 (47) 2821 (21) 10,435 (79) 1974 (15) 11,318 (85) 267 (2) 13,025 (98)
No 14,827 (53) 1584 (11) 13,212 (89) 1679 (11) 13,148 (89) 197 (1) 14,630 (99)
 Alcohol misuse Yes 799 (3) 286 (36) 509 (64) 187 (23) 612 (77) 27 (3) 772 (97)
No 27,320 (97) 4119 (15) 23,138 (85) 3466 (13) 23,854 (87) 437 (2) 26,883 (98)
 Drug misuse Yes 1824 (6) 488 (27) 1334 (73) 454 (25) 1370 (75) 38 (2) 1786 (98)
No 26,295 (94) 3917 (15) 22,313 (85) 3199 (12) 23,096 (88) 426 (2) 25,869 (98)
 Assault against mother Yes 2015 (7) 523 (26) 1482 (74) 395 (20) 1620 (80) 37 (2) 1978 (98)
No 26,104 (93) 3882 (15) 22,165 (85) 3258 (12) 22,846 (88) 427 (2) 25,677 (98)
Demographic factors
 Infant’s sex Male 14,161 (50) 2304 (16) 11,824 (84) 1865 (13) 12,296 (87) 241 (2) 13,920 (98)
Female 13,958 (50) 2101 (15) 11,823 (85) 1788 (13) 12,170 (87) 223 (2) 13,735 (98)
 Maternal age (years) 12–15 556 (2) 93 (17) 457 (83) 89 (16) 467 (84) 16 (3) 540 (97)
16–19 5717 (20) 1077 (19) 4621 (81) 750 (13) 4967 (87) 91 (2) 5626 (98)
20–24 9008 (32) 1403 (16) 7584 (84) 1144 (13) 7864 (87) 138 (2) 8870 (98)
25–29 6816 (24) 973 (14) 5832 (86) 827 (12) 5989 (88) 111 (2) 6705 (98)
30–34 3994 (14) 574 (14) 3412 (86) 532 (13) 3462 (87) 62 (2) 3932 (98)
35–50 2028 (7) 285 (14) 1741 (86) 311 (15) 1717 (85) 46 (2) 1982 (98)
 Parity 0 8636 (31) 1634 (19) 6979 (81) 1034 (12) 7602 (88) 138 (2) 8498 (98)
1 6898 (25) 973 (14) 5911 (86) 858 (12) 6040 (88) 100 (1) 6798 (99)
2 or more 12,585 (45) 1798 (14) 10,757 (86) 1761 (14) 10,824 (86) 226 (2) 12,359 (98)
Infections during pregnancy
 Vaginitis Yes 1747 (6) 305 (17) 1439 (83) 464 (27) 1283 (73) 43 (2) 1704 (98)
No 26,372 (94) 4100 (16) 22,208 (84) 3189 (12) 23,183 (88) 421 (2) 25,951 (98)
 Urinary tract infection Yes 3997 (14) 720 (18) 3269 (82) 639 (16) 3358 (84) 89 (2) 3908 (98)
No 24,122 (86) 3685 (15) 20,378 (85) 3014 (12) 21,108 (88) 375 (2) 23,747 (98)
 Herpes simplex Yes 320 (1) 33 (10) 286 (90) 42 (13) 278 (87) 6 (2) 314 (98)
No 27,799 (99) 4372 (16) 23,361 (84) 3611 (13) 24,188 (87) 458 (2) 27,341 (98)
 Gonorrhoea Yes 192 (1) 56 (30) 133 (70) 44 (23) 148 (77) n.p. n.p.
No 27,927 (99) 4349 (16) 23,514 (84) 3609 (13) 24,318 (87) n.p. n.p.
 Chlamydia Yes 255 (1) 47 (21) 177 (79) 44 (20) 181 (80) 5 (2) 220 (98)
No 27,894 (99) 4358 (16) 23,470 (84) 3609 (13) 24,285 (87) 459 (2) 27,435 (98)
 Group B streptococcus Yes 1333 (5) 208 (16) 1124 (84) 256 (19) 1077 (81) 22 (2) 1311 (98)
No 26,786 (95) 4197 (16) 22,523 (84) 3397 (13) 23,389 (87) 442 (2) 26,344 (98)
 Other infections Yes 148 (1) 40 (27) 107 (73) 26 (18) 122 (82) 6 (4) 142 (96)
No 27,971 (99) 4365 (16) 23,540 (84) 3627 (13) 24,344 (87) 458 (2) 27,513 (98)
Other maternal conditions
 Diabetes Yes 1841 (7) 151 (8) 1688 (92) 373 (20) 1468 (80) 46 (2) 1795 (98)
No 26,278 (93) 4254 (16) 21,959 (84) 3280 (12) 22,998 (88) 418 (2) 25,860 (98)
 Hypertension Yes 2811 (10) 503 (18) 2303 (82) 579 (21) 2232 (79) 45 (2) 2766 (98)
No 25,308 (90) 3902 (15) 21,344 (85) 3074 (12) 22,234 (88) 419 (2) 24,889 (98)
 Obesity Yes 600 (2) 39 (7) 559 (93) 116 (19) 484 (81) 13 (2) 587 (98)
No 27,519 (98) 4366 (16) 23,088 (84) 3537 (13) 23,982 (87) 451 (2) 27,068 (98)
 Mental health Yes 2017 (7) 328 (16) 1686 (84) 357 (18) 1660 (82) 47 (2) 1970 (98)
No 26,102 (93) 4077 (16) 21,961 (84) 3296 (13) 22,806 (87) 417 (2) 25,685 (98)
 Heart disease Yes 225 (1) 35 (16) 190 (84) 48 (21) 177 (79) 5 (2) 220 (98)
No 27,894 (99) 4370 (16) 23,457 (84) 3605 (13) 24,289 (87) 459 (2) 27,435 (98)
 Asthma Yes 3136 (11) 477 (15) 2657 (85) 424 (14) 2712 (86) 42 (1) 3094 (99)
No 24,983 (89) 3928 (16) 20,990 (84) 3229 (13) 21,754 (87) 422 (2) 24,561 (98)
Total   28,119 (100) 4405 (16) 23,647 (84) 3653 (13) 24,466 (87) 464 (2) 27,655 (98)
  1. n.p. = counts not publishable because of privacy concerns as they are less than 5 or could lead to calculation of a count of less than 5. Hypertension refers to pre-existing hypertension complicating pregnancy, pre-eclampsia, and eclampsia. Vaginitis also includes candida and trichomoniasis. Other infections refer to syphilis, toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, and varicella zoster. a 67 cases of unknown gestational age were excluded