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Table 2 Analysis of infant birth weight stratified by BMI

From: Maternal body mass index and risk of neonatal adverse outcomes in China: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Characteristics LBW SGA Macrosomia LGA
No. of Studies Pooled OR (95% CI) P-value No. of Studies Pooled OR (95% CI) P-value No. of Studies Pooled OR (95% CI) P-value No. of Studies Pooled OR (95% CI) P-value
Underweight
Sample size
 ≤ 10,000 8 2.22 (1.10–4.52) 0.187 6 2.03 (1.37–3.00) 0.394 20 0.46 (0.38–0.55) 0.350 4 0.55 (0.46–0.67) 0.367
 10,000~50,000 5 1.37 (1.13–1.65)   3 1.78 (1.61–1.97)   6 0.52 (0.41–0.66)   3 0.44 (0.31–0.62)  
 ≥ 50,000 2 1.28 (1.14–1.43)   1 1.46 (1.37–1.55)   1 0.56 (0.51–0.61)   0 NA  
BMI cut-off
 WHO 1 3.52 (1.66–7.49) 0.233 2 1.85 (0.64–2.07) 0.841 4 0.41 (0.25–0.67) 0.843 1 0.32 (0.25–0.41) 0.073
 APS 3 2.14 (0.59–7.72)   0 NA   3 0.60 (0.34–1.07)   0 NA  
 WGOC 11 1.43 (1.24–1.64)   8 1.74 (1.46–2.06)   20 0.49 (0.44–0.55)   6 0.52 (0.44–0.62)  
BMI source
 Recorded 11 1.72 (1.39–2.14) 0.239 4 1.88 (1.47–2.41) 0.698 18 0.51 (0.43–0.60) 0.332 3 0.50 (0.37–0.67) 0.225
 Measured 1 1.30 (0.97–1.73)   2 1.53 (1.28–1.83)   1 0.54 (0.45–0.63)   2 0.59 (0.53–0.66)  
 Self-reported 0 NA   1 2.28 (0.75–6.92)   3 0.48 (0.39–0.58)   0 NA  
 Questionnaire 1 1.64 (0.96–2.80)   3 1.73 (1.21–2.48)   2 0.52 (0.30–0.88)   2 0.38 (0.26–0.55)  
 Not reported 2 0.88 (0.34–2.23)   0 NA   3 0.37 (0.23–0.60)   0 NA  
Language
 English 3 1.31 (1.18–1.44) 0.486 5 1.70 (1.46–1.99) 0.717 5 0.50 (0.44–0.57) 0.975 3 0.39 (0.32–0.49) 0.009
 Chinese 12 1.81 (1.31–2.50)   5 1.75 (1.52–2.02)   22 0.48 (0.41–0.58)   4 0.59 (0.53–0.65)  
Confounders
 Adjusted 5 1.24 (1.13–1.37) 0.307 8 1.63 (1.44–1.85) 0.022 7 0.56 (0.47–0.68) 0.127 6 0.48 (0.38–0.61) 0.967
 Unadjusted 10 1.95 (1.38–2.75)   2 3.66 (1.46–9.16)   20 0.45 (0.38–0.53)   1 0.48 (0.32–0.72)  
Geographic region
 North China 6 1.31 (0.94–1.83) 0.510 4 1.82 (1.67–2.00) 0.914 12 0.45 (0.41–0.49) 0.212 3 0.43 (0.37–0.50) 0.764
 South China 7 2.08 (1.41–3.05)   6 1.77 (1.43–2.20)   14 0.50 (0.40–0.63)   4 0.49 (0.36–0.68)  
 All 2 1.52 (1.19–1.94)   0 NA   1 0.59 (0.51–0.67)   0 NA  
Overweight/Obesity
Sample size
 ≤ 10,000 8 1.24 (0.90–1.71) 0.718 6 1.21 (0.84–1.73) 0.135 20 2.05 (1.75–2.40) 0.284 4 1.67 (1.40–1.98) 0.162
 10,000~50,000 5 1.04 (0.81–1.34)   3 0.69 (0.64–0.75)   6 1.75 (1.52–2.01)   3 2.06 (1.76–2.41)  
 ≥ 50,000 2 1.32 (1.04–1.68)   1 0.84 (0.75–0.94)   1 1.83 (1.68–1.99)   0 NA  
BMI cut-off
 WHO 1 1.34 (0.54–3.33) 0.731 2 1.29 (0.31–5.38) 0.733 4 1.90 (1.19–3.04) 0.776 1 2.41 (2.19–2.64) 0.067
 APS 3 1.19 (0.79–1.80)   0 NA   3 1.90 (1.13–3.18)   0 NA  
 WGOC 10 1.15 (0.97–1.36)   8 0.89 (0.74–1.05)   20 1.92 (1.76–2.10)   6 1.79 (1.58–2.02)  
BMI source
 Recorded 11 1.19 (1.05–1.35) 0.621 4 0.77 (0.69–0.86) 0.392 18 2.03 (1.82–2.27) 0.446 3 1.66 (1.28–2.16) 0.097
 Measured 1 0.35 (0.14–0.85)   2 0.99 (0.54–1.82)   1 1.89 (1.57–2.30)   2 1.78 (1.56–2.03)  
 Self-reported 0 NA   1 2.82 (1.29–6.17)   3 1.28 (0.95–1.71)   0 NA  
 Questionnaire 1 2.08 (1.31–3.32)   3 0.97 (0.54–1.73)   2 1.90 (1.30–2.78)   2 2.38 (2.18–2.60)  
 Not reported 2 0.92 (0.44–1.93)   0 NA   3 2.13 (1.72–2.65)   0 NA  
Language
 English 3 1.28 (1.09–1.50) 0.367 5 0.77 (0.65–0.91) 0.167 5 1.57 (1.33–1.85) 0.028 3 2.02 (1.69–2.42) 0.329
 Chinese 12 1.06 (0.83–1.36)   5 1.12 (0.85–1.47)   22 2.06 (1.84–2.31)   4 1.74 (1.51–2.01)  
Confounders
 Adjusted 5 1.34 (1.08–1.65) 0.064 8 0.88 (0.73–1.05) 0.824 7 1.60 (1.37–1.88) 0.026 6 1.86 (1.61–2.15) 0.714
 Unadjusted 10 1.09 (1.00–1.20)   2 1.02 (0.60–1.76)   20 2.08 (1.86–2.33)   1 2.05 (1.45–2.89)  
Geographic region
 North China 6 1.16 (0.99–1.35) 0.805 4 1.04 (0.68–1.57) 0.584 12 1.69 (1.49–1.92) 0.041 3 1.85 (1.58–2.16) 0.807
 South China 7 1.28 (0.98–1.66)   6 0.84 (0.67–1.04)   14 2.18 (1.87–2.55)   4 1.88 (1.45–2.42)  
 All 2 1.04 (0.80–1.35)   0 NA   1 2.18 (2.02–2.36)   0 NA  
  1. NA not available, BMI body mass index, WHO World Health Organization, APS Asia-Pacific standard, WGOC Working Group on Obesity in China, LGA large for gestational age, SGA small for gestational age, LBW low birth weight, PTB premature birth