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Table 2 Multilevel logistic regression models of factors associated with non-utilization of health service for delivery

From: Women who have not utilized health Service for Delivery in Nigeria: who are they and where do they live?

Variable Model 1a Model 2b Model 3c Model 4d
aOR (CrI) aOR (CrI) aOR (CrI) aOR (CrI)
Individual-level factors
 Age
  15–24   1.03 (0.89–1.18) 0.99 (0.86–1.13) 0.98 (0.86–1.10)
  25–34   1.16 (1.03–1.29) 1.15 (1.04–1.28) 1.14 (1.03–1.26)
  35+   1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
 Education
  No education   2.64 (2.28–3.03) 2.42 (2.09–2.75) 2.38 (2.07–2.73)
  Primary   1.89 (1.68–2.12) 1.84 (1.64–2.04) 1.84 (1.63–2.05)
  Secondary/higher   1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
 Household wealth index
  Poor   3.42 (2.84–4.06) 2.44 (2.03–2.92) 2.44 (1.98–2.86)
  Middle   2.06 (1.82–2.32) 1.72 (1.49–1.95) 1.71 (1.50–1.92)
  Rich   1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
 Occupation
  Not working   1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
  Working   0.99 (0.90–1.09) 1.006 (0.91–1.10) 0.99 (0.90–1.10)
 Marital status
  Never married   1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
  Ever married   0.67 (0.53–0.87) 0.63 (0.47–0.83) 0.64 (0.49–0.80)
 Mass media exposure
  Never exposed   1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
  Exposed   0.89 (0.79–0.99) 0.92 (0.82–1.04) 0.92 (0.81–1.03)
 Antenatal care attendance
  Never attended   6.75 (5.95–7.59) 6.34 (5.62–7.13) 6.31 (5.56–7.12)
   < 4 visits   1.98 (1.75–2.23) 1.94 (1.72–2.18) 1.93 (1.69–2.17)
  4 or more visits   1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
Community-level factors
 Residence
  Urban    1 (reference) 1 (reference)
  Rural    1.79 (1.42–2.15) 1.81 (1.54–2.12)
 Getting to health facility
  Not a problem    1 (reference) 1 (reference)
  A problem    1.27 (1.14–1.40) 1.28 (1.15–1.44)
  Ethnicity diversity index    0.97 (0.95–1.006) 0.97 (0.94–1.003)
 Socioeconomic disadvantage
  Tertile 1 (least disadvantaged)    1 (reference) 1 (reference)
  Tertile 2    1.39 (1.13–1.74) 1.32 (1.07–1.63)
  Tertile 3 (most disadvantaged)    2.59 (1.77–3.68) 2.31 (1.68–3.21)
State-level factors
 Socioeconomic disadvantage
  Tertile 1 (least disadvantaged)     1 (reference)
  Tertile 2     1.40 (0.75–3.23)
  Tertile 3 (most disadvantaged)     4.21 (1.85–7.89)
Measures of variation
 State level
  Variance (SE) 3.954 (2.388–6.563) 1.294 (0.777–2.118) 0.875 (0.507–1.438) 0.741 (0.436–1.233)
  Explained variation (%) Reference 67.3 77.9 81.2
  ICC (%) 43.11 24.40 18.15 15.83
  MOR 6.66 2.96 2.44 2.27
 Community level
  Variance (SE) 1.926 (1.674–2.203) 0.718 (0.603–0.845) 0.657 (0.541–0.773) 0.651 (0.540–0.774)
  Explained variation (%) Reference 62.7 65.9 66.2
  ICC (%) 64.11 37.93 31.75 29.72
  MOR 3.78 2.24 2.17 2.16
 Model fit statistics
  Bayesian DIC 16,555 15,176 15,097 15,098
  1. aModel 1 is the empty model, a baseline model with no independent variable
  2. bModel 2 is adjusted for age, education, household wealth index, occupation, marital status, mass media exposure, and antenatal care attendance
  3. cModel 3 is additionally adjusted for residence, getting to health facility, ethnicity diversity index and community socioeconomic factors
  4. dModel 4 is additionally adjusted for state socioeconomic factors
  5. Abbreviations: SE; standard error, DIC; deviation information criterion, CrI; credible interval, ICC; intra-cluster correlation, MOR; median odds ratio