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Table 3 Maternal/perinatal complications and adverse outcomes by mode of conception in all pregnancies, pregnancies with singletons, and pregnancies with multiples

From: Complications and adverse outcomes in pregnancy and childbirth among women who conceived by assisted reproductive technologies: a nationwide birth cohort study of Japan environment and children’s study

  Natural conception OI without ART Conventional IVT-ET ICSI
N % N % N % N %
All women and a fetus/neonate born ≥22 weeks
 Maternal outcomes N = 90,506 N = 3939 N = 1476 N = 1671
  Placenta previa 489 0.5 22 0.6 36 2.4 30 1.8
  Placental abruption 382 0.4 19 0.5 8 0.5 19 1.2
  MAP 172 0.2 9 0.2 17 1.2 24 1.5
  Gestational diabetes 2304 2.6 138 3.5 76 5.2 80 4.8
  PIH 2632 2.9 177 4.5 101 6.9 107 6.5
  Cesarean section 16,433 18.5 933 24.2 563 38.6 617 37.8
  Blood transfusion 377 0.4 20 0.5 36 2.4 38 2.3
  ICU admission 105 0.1 8 0.2 7 0.5 15 0.9
  Maternal death 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
 Fetal/neonatal outcomes N = 89,576 N = 4067 N = 1518 N = 1699
  Stillbirth 230 0.3 17 0.4 10 0.7 5 0.3
  Preterm birth < 37 w 4768 5.3 423 10.4 184 12.1 181 10.7
  Low birth weight < 2500 g 7980 8.9 651 16.0 243 16.0 245 14.4
Women with a singleton pregnancy and singleton born ≥22 weeks
 Maternal outcomes N = 88,873 N = 3702 N = 1407 N = 1586
  Placenta previa 486 0.5 20 0.5 34 2.4 28 1.8
  Placental abruption 380 0.4 18 0.5 8 0.6 19 1.2
  MAP 172 0.2 8 0.2 17 1.2 24 1.5
  Gestational diabetes 2271 2.6 132 3.6 72 5.1 75 4.7
  PIH 2573 2.9 165 4.5 93 6.6 102 6.4
  Cesarean section 15,912 18.0 780 21.2 509 36.5 558 35.6
  Blood transfusion 368 0.4 16 0.4 33 2.4 37 2.3
  ICU admission 97 0.1 5 0.1 7 0.5 12 0.8
  Maternal death 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
 Fetal/neonatal outcomes N = 88,337 N = 3682 N = 1393 N = 1570
  Stillbirth 216 0.2 8 0.2 8 0.6 4 0.3
  Preterm birth 4153 4.7 211 5.7 120 8.6 119 7.6
  Low birth weight < 2500 g 7141 8.1 373 10.1 159 11.4 159 10.1
Women with multiple pregnancies and multiples born ≥22 weeks
 Maternal outcomes N = 625 N = 189 N = 63 N = 66
  Placenta previa 3 0.5 1 0.5 2 3.2 2 3.1
  Placental abruption 2 0.3 1 0.5 0 0 0 0
  MAP 0 0 1 0.5 0 0 0 0
  Gestational diabetes 31 5.1 6 3.2 4 6.3 5 7.8
  PIH 57 9.4 12 6.5 8 12.7 5 7.8
  Cesarean section 518 85.8 151 81.2 54 87.1 59 92.2
  Blood transfusion 9 1.5 3 1.6 3 4.8 1 1.6
  ICU admission 8 1.3 3 1.6 0 0 3 4.7
  Maternal death 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
 Fetal/neonatal outcomes N = 1209 N = 383 N = 125 N = 129
  Stillbirth 13 1.1 9 2.3 2 1.6 1 0.8
  Preterm birth 613 50.7 212 55.4 64 51.2 62 48.1
  Low birth weight < 2500 g 838 69.3 278 72.8 84 67.2 86 66.7
  1. ART assisted reproductive technologies, ICSI intracytoplasmic sperm injection, ICU intensive care unit, IVF-ET in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer, MAP morbidly adherent placenta, OI ovulation induction, PIH pregnancy-induced hypertension
  2. Proportions were calculated excluding cases with missing data