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Table 2 Unadjusted and adjusted Odds Ratio for early initiation of breastfeeding in Ethiopia 2016

From: Determinants of early initiation of breastfeeding in Ethiopia: a population-based study using the 2016 demographic and health survey data

Characteristics Unadjusted odds ratio Adjusted odds ratio 95% CI
OR p-value 95% CI OR p-value
Individual-level factors
 Maternal working status (past 12 months)
  Non-working 1.00    Not retained in the final model
  Working 1.16 0.067 0.99–1.37    
 Maternal education
  No education 1.00    Not retained in the final model
  Primary 1.10 0.279 0.93–1.29    
  Secondary and above 1.15 0.224 0.92–1.44    
 Partner’s occupation
  Not working 1.00    Not taken in the model
  Non-agriculture 1.00 0.980 0.75–1.32    
  Agriculture 0.91 0.479 0.70–1.18    
 Partner’s education
  No education 1.00    Not retained in the final model
  Primary 1.16 0.091 0.98–1.37    
  Secondary and above 1.11 0.289 0.91–1.36    
 Mother’s age (years)
  15–24 1.00    Not retained in the final model
  25–34 1.16 0.046 1.00–1.35    
  35–49 1.12 0.264 0.92–1.36    
 Marital status
  Never married 1.00    Not taken in the model
  Currently married 0.98 0.930 0.60–1.58    
  Formerly married 0.75 0.337 0.42–1.35    
 Birth order
  First-born 1.00      
  Second to fourth 1.31 0.004 1.09–1.57 1.38 0.002 1.13–1.69
  Fifth or more 1.31 0.004 1.09–1.59 1.44 0.000 1.18–1.77
 Preceding birth interval
  No pervious birth 1.00    Not taken in the model
  < 24 months 1.34 0.012 1.07–1.69    
  > = 24 months 1.30 0.003 1.09–1.54    
 Mother’s literacy
  Cannot read at all 1.00    Not taken in the model
  Can read part/whole sentence 1.02 0.850 0.86–1.20    
 Mother’s frequency of reading newspaper
  No 1.00    Not taken in the model
  Yes 0.98 0.885 0.76–1.27    
 Mother’s frequency of listening to the radio
  No 1.00    Not taken in the model
  Yes 0.97 0.707 0.82–1.14    
 Mother’s frequency of watching TV
  No 1.00    Not retained in the final model
  Yes 1.23 0.031 1.02–1.49    
 Place of delivery
  Home 1.00    Not retained in the final model
  Health facility 1.28 0.002 1.09–1.50    
 Mode of delivery
  Non-caesarean 1.00      
  Caesarean section 0.26 0.000 0.18–0.37 0.14 0.000 0.09–0.22
 Type of delivery assistance
  None 1.00      
  Health professional 1.27 0.083 0.97–1.65 1.68 0.001 1.23–2.29
  Traditional birth attendant 0.97 0.845 0.74–1.28 1.22 0.201 0.90–1.64
  Relatives/untrained workers 0.94 0.700 0.67–1.31 1.10 0.620 0.76–1.59
 Antenatal care visits
  None 1.00    Not taken in the model
  1–3 visits 1.06 0.542 0.88–1.26    
 4 or more 1.08 0.405 0.90–1.29    
 Mother’s BMI (kg/m2)
  ≤18.5 1.00    Not taken in the model
  > 18.5- ≤ 24.9 1.02 0.811 0.86–1.20    
  > 24.9- ≤ 29.9 1.05 0.722 0.80–1.39    
  ≥30 1.04 0.879 0.63–1.72    
 Gender of the child
  Male 1.00      
  Female 1.17 0.019 1.03–1.34 1.17 0.035 1.01–1.34
 Child’s age (months)
  0–5 1.00      
  6–11 1.21 0.038 1.01–1.44 1.22 0.042 1.01–1.47
  12–17 1.12 0.217 0.94–1.34 1.15 0.153 0.95–1.40
  18–23 1.23 0.042 1.01–1.51 1.20 0.111 0.96–1.49
Household factors
 Wealth index
  Poorest 1.00      
  Poorer 1.26 0.031 1.02–1.56 1.01 0.967 0.79–1.27
  Middle 1.33 0.022 1.04–1.69 1.04 0.745 0.80–1.36
  Richer 1.26 0.071 0.98–1.62 0.96 0.743 0.73–1.25
  Richest 1.64 0.000 1.31–2.06 1.43 0.015 1.07–1.92
Community-level factors
 Residence
  Urban 1.00      
  Rural 0.73 0.004 0.59–0.90 0.89 0.594 0.59–1.35
 Region
  Tigray 1.00      
  Affar 0.44 0.000 0.31–0.63 0.52 0.001 0.36–0.76
  Amhara 1.20 0.318 0.84–1.72 1.42 0.062 0.98–2.06
  Oromiya 2.08 0.000 1.49–2.89 2.58 0.000 1.84–3.63
  Somali 1.91 0.001 1.29–2.85 2.19 0.000 1.46–3.28
  Benishangul-Gumuz 1.58 0.021 1.07–2.32 1.87 0.002 1.26–2.76
  SNNP 2.15 0.000 1.48–3.12 2.75 0.000 1.86–4.05
  Gamabela 1.43 0.073 0.97–2.12 1.68 0.012 1.12–2.52
  Harari 5.21 0.000 3.08–8.80 7.05 0.000 4.08–12.18
  Addis ababa 1.25 0.287 0.83–1.87 1.43 0.112 0.92–2.21
  Dire dawa 5.61 0.000 3.06–10.27 6.89 0.000 3.54–13.41
  1. Backward stepwise model with dichotomous outcome of (0 = no timely initiation; 1 = timely initiation)
  2. CI Confidence Intervals