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Table 1 Individual, household and community level characteristics of children < 24 months of age, Ethiopia 2016

From: Determinants of early initiation of breastfeeding in Ethiopia: a population-based study using the 2016 demographic and health survey data

Characteristics Overall Initiation of breastfeeding
(n = 4121) Within first hour (n = 3064) After first hour (n = 1057)
Individual level factors N (%) N (%) N (%)
Socio-demographic factors
 Maternal working status (past 12 months)
  Non-working 2427 (58.9) 1810 (59.1) 617 (58.3)
  Working 1694 (41.1) 1254 (40.9) 440 (41.7)
 Maternal education
  No education 2487 (60.4) 1851(60.4) 636 (60.2)
  Primary 1273 (30.9) 955 (31.2) 318 (30.1)
  Secondary and above 361 (8.7) 258 (8.5) 103 (9.6)
 Partner’s occupation
  Not working 285 (7.3) 216 (7.4) 69 (7.0)
  Non-agriculture 1092 (27.8) 815 (27.7) 277 (28.0)
  Agriculture 2548 (64.9) 1905 (64.9) 643 (65.0)
 Partner’s education
  No education 1755 (45.0) 1285 (44.0) 470 (48.1)
  Primary 1577 (40.4) 1221 (41.8) 356 (36.4)
  Secondary and above 568 (14.6) 416 (14.2) 152 (15.5)
 Mother’s age (years)
  15–24 1205 (29.2) 875 (28.6) 330 (31.2)
  25–34 2097 (50.9) 1608 (52.5) 489 (46.3)
  35–49 820 (19.9) 582 (19.0) 238 (22.5)
 Marital status
  Never married 76 (1.8) 53 (1.7) 23 (2.1)
  Currently married 3879 (94.1) 2898 (94.6) 981 (92.8)
  Formerly married 166 (4.0) 113 (3.7) 53 (5.1)
 Child’s age (months)
  0–5 1178 (28.6) 841 (27.5) 337 (31.9)
  6–11 1052 (25.5) 784 (25.6) 268 (25.4)
  12–17 1084 (26.3) 833 (27.2) 251 (23.8)
  18–23 808 (19.6) 607 (19.8) 201 (19.0)
 Mother’s literacy
  Cannot read at all 2955 (71.7) 2207 (72.0) 748 (70.8)
  Can read part/whole sentence 1166 (28.3) 857 (28.0) 309 (29.2)
 Mother’s frequency of reading newspaper
   No 3841 (93.2) 2868 (93.6) 973 (92.0)
   Yes 281 (6.8) 197 (6.4) 84 (8.0)
 Mother’s frequency of listening to the radio
  No 3000 (72.8) 2231 (72.8) 769 (72.8)
  Yes 1121 (27.2) 833 (27.2) 288 (27.2)
 Mother’s frequency of watching TV
  No 3000 (72.8) 2231 (72.8) 769 (72.8)
  Yes 1121 (27.2) 833 (27.2) 288 (27.2)
Bio-medical factors
 Place of delivery
  Home 2536 (61.5) 1884 (61.5) 652 (61.6)
  Health facility 1585 (38.5) 1180 (38.5) 405 (38.4)
 Mode of delivery
  Non-caesarean 4012 (97.4) 3020 (98.6) 992 (93.8)
  Caesarean section 109 (2.6) 44 (1.4) 65 (6.2)
 Type of delivery assistance
  Health professional 1539 (37.3) 1180 (38.5) 359 (34.0)
  Traditional birth attendant 1400 (34.0) 1069 (34.8) 331 (31.3)
  Relatives/untrained workers 560 (13.6) 355 (11.6) 205 (19.4)
  None 622 (15.1) 460 (15.1) 162 (15.3)
 Antenatal care visits
  None 1425 (34.6) 1080 (35.3) 345 (32.7)
  1–3 visits 1313 (31.9) 963 (31.4) 350 (33.1)
  4 or more 1383 (33.5) 1021 (33.3) 362 (34.2)
 Mother’s BMI (kg/m2)
  ≤18.5 828 (20.7) 626 (21.0) 202 (19.5)
  > 18.5- ≤ 24.9 2908 (72.6) 2157 (72.6) 751 (72.6)
  > 24.9- ≤ 29.9 220 (5.5) 153 (5.1) 67 (6.5)
  ≥ 30 53 (1.2) 38 (1.3) 15 (1.4)
Household factors
 Wealth index
  Poorest 974 (23.6) 725 (23.7) 249 (23.6)
  Poorer 893 (21.7) 674 (22.0) 218 (20.6)
  Middle 867 (21.0) 648 (21.2) 219 (20.7)
  Richer 746 (18.1) 527 (17.2) 219 (20.7)
  Richest 642 (15.6) 490 (16.0) 152 (14.4)
Community-level factors
 Residence
  Urban 498 (12.1) 371 (12.1) 127 (12.0)
  Rural 3624 (87.9) 2694 (87.9) 930 (88.0)
 Region
  Tigray 304 (7.4) 195 (6.4) 110 (10.4)
  Affar 40 (1.0) 17 (0.6) 23 (2.2)
  Amhara 757 (18.4) 508 (16.6) 249 (23.6)
  Oromiya 1841 (44.7) 1433 (46.7) 409 (38.7)
  Somali 169 (4.1) 133 (4.4) 35 (3.4)
  Benishangul-Gumuz 44 (1.1) 32 (1.0) 12 (1.2)
  SNNP 825 (20.0) 644 (21.0) 181 (17.1)
  Gamabela 10 (0.2) 6 (0.2) 3 (0.3)
  Harari 10 (0.2) 9 (0.3) 1 (0.1)
  Addis ababa 105 (2.6) 72 (2.4) 33 (3.1)
  Dire dawa 17 (0.3) 16 (0.5) 1 (0.1)