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Table 4 Multilevel analysis of the association between individual, household and community variables with adolescent pregnancy and early motherhood in five East African countries

From: Pregnancy and early motherhood among adolescents in five East African countries: a multi-level analysis of risk and protective factors

Variables Kenya
aOR (95% CI)
Tanzania
aOR (95% CI)
Malawi
aOR(95%CI)
Uganda
aOR(95%CI)
Zambia
aOR(95%CI)
Age in years
 15 (ref)      
 16 2.13(1.35–3.35)** 2.21(1.21–4.01)** 2.25(1.47–3.43)** 1.61(0.94–2.78) 1.63(1.05–2.53)**
 17 5.27(3.38–8.21)** 6.14(3.36–11.19)** 5.89(3.86–8.98)** 3.50(2.04–6.02)** 3.53(2.28–5.47)**
 18 9.88(6.38–15.30)** 10.35(5.72–18.72)** 9.31(6.14–14.11)** 9.20(5.33–15.88)** 6.55(4.27–10.05)**
 19 20.43(12.96–32.18)** 26.09(13.80–49.31)** 18.02(11.6–28.1)** 14.57(8.28–25.63)** 16.56(10.52–26.07)**
Education
 No education (ref)      
 Primary education 1.04(0.67–1.61) 0.76(0.46–1.24) 0.92(0.54–1.67) 0.57(0.22–1.47) 0.49(0.23–1.05)
 Secondary and above 0.33(0.21–0.54)** 0.35(0.19–0.62)** 0.37(0.20–0.71)** 0.32 (0.16–0.87)** 0.35 (0.16–0.76)**
Age at first sex
 No sex 0.18 (0.11–0.29) 1.00 (−) 1.00 (−) 1.00 (−) 0.22(0.14–0.34)**
 5–14 4.27 (2.41–7.56)** 12.28(6.48–23.30)* 5.03 (3.38–7.49)** 5.52(3.52–8.67)** 4.01(2.51–6.63)**
 15–17 3.24(1.91–5.40)** 4.81(2.78–8.30)** 2.81(2.02–3.92)** 3.73(2.54–5.47)** 3.21(2.13–4.96)**
 18–19 (ref)      
Exposure to Media (ref = none)
 One of the 3 sources 1.04(0.81–1.34) 0.95(0.69–1.30) 1.01(0.80–1.26) 0.86(0.67–1.10) 0.79(0.61–1.02)
 Two of the 3 sources 0.78(0.56–1.08) 0.87(0.56–1.34) 0.66(0.45–0.95)* 0.59(0.40–0.88)** 0.58(0.43–0.80)**
 All three sources 0.57(0.34–0.95)** 0.70(0.34–1.33) 0.52(0.25–1.00) 0.36(0.18–0.72)** 0.44(0.28–0.67)**
Residence (RC = urban)
 Rural 1.67(0.90–1.53) 1.04(0.67–1.58) 0.88(0.62–1.26) 1.12(0.77–1.62) 0.98(0.71–1.34)
Wealth (ref. = poorest)
 Poorer 0.88(0.64–1.20) 1.15(0.75–1.75) 0.67(0.49–1.05) 1.01(0.70–1.42) 1.10(0.75–1.56)
 Middle 0.86(0.61–1.22) 0.85(0.55–1.29) 0.82(0.59–1.13) 0.83(0.56–1.24) 0.82(0.55–1.22)
 Richer 0.59(0.38–0.91)* 0.75(0.47–1.18) 0.80(0.57–1.13) 0.54(0.35–0.84)** 0.63(0.39–1.00)
 Richest 0.32(0.18–0.57)** 0.41(0.23–0.74)** 0.46(0.32–0.68)** 0.39(0.23–0.68)** 0.47(0.26–0.83)**
R/ship to head of HH
 Daughter (ref)      
 Spouse/head 15.89(11.55–22.09)** 4.19(2.77–6.33)** 4.91(3.79–6.37)** 4.62(3.39–6.29)** 14.79(11.55–18.63)**
 Living with relatives or others 2.00 (1.59–2.52)** 1.07(0.78–1.469) 1.23(0.99–1.54)* 1.79(1.37–2.33)** 1.01(0.81–1.26)
Sex of household head
 Male (ref)      
 Female 0.87(0.71–1.07) 0.85(0.61–1.17) 1.08(0.88–1.34) 0.91(0.72–1.16) 1.06(0.84–1.34)
Comm. Level poverty (Ref = low)
 High 0.82 (0.61–1.10) 1.33(0.85–2.07) 1.09 (0.85–1.39) 0.70(0.49–0.94)* 0.83(0.59–1.17)
Comm. level education (ref = Low)
 High 1.01(0.78–1.30) 0.77(0.50–1.19) 1.12(0.84–1.47) 0.91(0.67–1.24) 1.25 (0.88–1.77)
ICC (empty model) 0.123 0.215 0.074 0.072 0.152
ICC (full model) 0.121 0.079 0.051 0.046 0.029
n 5820 2904 5263 4263 3675
Cluster 1489 494 802 626 712
  1. * significant at P < 0.05
  2. ** significant at P < 0.01