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Table 3 Results of data analysis

From: Barriers to men’s participation in perinatal care: a qualitative study in Iran

Codes Sub-category Category
• Negative attitudes toward the issue of male participation
• Men’s fear of social stigma
• The community believe of the responsibility of the woman
The undesirable dominant socio-cultural climate of the society Cultural barriers
• Unwillingness to allow husband’s presence in maternity ward and prenatal clinic
• The traditional women’s reliance on their family
Lack of request from women
• The insignificant contribution of families in learning to participate in boys
• The lack of education of men and boys in our society
Educational poverty in the society
• Unawareness of men about the importance of their collaborative role in the perinatal period
• Men’s insufficient experience about participation in pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum care
• The lack of men’s preparation at early age for fatherhood
Poverty of consciousness and men’s inadequate experiences Personal and Interpersonal barriers
• Changing the sexual function of couples during pregnancy
• The lack of proper interaction between couples
Couple’s communicational problems
• Lack of appropriate physical space in health centers for men
• Inappropriate time to provide prenatal care for the possibility of male participation
• Restriction and even the ban on men for entering the prenatal clinic
The structural problems in the health centers Health system-related barriers
• The negative attitude of the health providers towards the presence of men alongside the wives in health centers
• The lack of male reproductive health professionals for the education of boys and men
• The embarrassment of female medical staff to confront men in women’s care settings
Problems related to the human resources
• Applying the opinion and personal preferences of the senior managers of health centers to avoid the presence of men in these centers
• The lack of attention of policymakers to the issue of men’s participation in perinatal care in large-scale planning and policy as a community’s need despite its acceptance
• The lack of a specific program in the health ministry’s plans for male participation in perinatal care
Policymaking and managerial problems
• Lack of time for men due to long working hours
• Failure to grant and perform paternal leave
Men’s occupational problems Socio-economic barriers
• High costs of pregnancy care and childbirth
• The lack of financial support for families during pregnancy by the government
• Low economic level of the family
Financial problems