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Table 1 Distribution of maternal county of residence urban-rural classification, sociodemographic, health and obstetric characteristics of term births by county povertya, US 2013

From: Poverty, urban-rural classification and term infant mortality: a population-based multilevel analysis

  Low Poverty Medium Poverty High Poverty
N (%) N (%) N (%)
227,760 7.6 979,088 32.5 1,804,312 59.9
Contextual County Characteristics
 County urban-rural classification
  Large central metro 9024 4.0 207,356 21.2 806,000 44.7
  Large fringe metro 206,349 90.6 379,031 38.7 125,059 6.9
  Medium metro 7581 3.3 195,098 19.9 410,336 22.7
  Small metro 2144 0.9 88,796 9.1 173,863 9.6
  Micropolitan (non-metro) 1498 0.7 70,780 7.2 172,164 9.5
  Non-core (non-metro) 1164 0.5 38,027 3.9 116,890 6.5
Maternal Individual Characteristics
 Maternal age (years)
   ≤ 19 6947 3.1 51,062 5.2 149,170 8.3
  20–24 28,213 12.4 193,690 19.8 464,937 25.8
  25–29 61,745 27.1 290,656 29.7 518,092 28.7
  30–34 81,815 35.9 285,546 29.2 433,099 24.0
  35–39 40,034 17.6 128,818 13.2 193,808 10.7
   ≥ 40 9006 4.0 29,316 3.0 45,206 2.5
 Maternal education
  High school or less 51,938 22.8 320,593 32.7 822,059 45.6
  Some college 54,431 23.9 294,302 30.1 522,084 28.9
  Bachelor’s or more 118,188 51.9 346,468 35.4 438,619 24.3
Marital status (Yes) 172,872 75.9 662,214 67.6 984,766 54.6
 Maternal race/ethnicity
  Non-Hispanic White 149,335 65.6 631,496 64.5 869,560 48.2
  Non-Hispanic Black 19,253 8.5 89,074 9.1 306,724 17.0
  Hispanic 34,684 15.2 169,091 17.3 500,517 27.7
  Non-Hispanic Other 23,485 10.3 79,960 8.2 116,621 6.5
 Gestational age (weeks)
  37 16,830 7.4 72,036 7.4 148,629 8.2
  38 38,402 16.9 162,013 16.6 327,337 18.1
  39 96,639 42.2 406,034 41.5 768,118 42.6
  40 57,841 25.4 250,770 25.6 431,416 23.9
   ≥ 41 18,048 7.9 88,235 9.0 128,812 7.1
 Parity
  0 93,972 41.3 394,077 40.3 714,573 39.6
  1–2 114,986 50.5 477,582 48.8 860,991 47.7
   ≥ 3 18,215 8.0 102,909 10.5 219,841 12.2
Infant sex (Female) 112,249 49.3 479,520 49.0 885,644 49.1
 Month prenatal care began
  First trimester 171,993 75.5 733,075 74.9 1,244,999 69.0
  Second trimester 33,132 14.6 166,895 17.1 367,761 20.4
  Third trimester 8204 3.6 36,807 3.8 92,294 5.1
  No prenatal care 1163 0.5 6731 0.7 26,439 1.5
Tobacco use during pregnancy (Yes) 10,852 4.8 79,571 8.1 149,346 8.3
Chronic diabetes (Yes) 12,152 5.3 58,522 6.0 97,500 5.4
Chronic hypertension (Yes) 2635 1.2 12,035 1.2 23,222 1.3
Pregnancy associated hypertension (Yes) 7495 3.3 39,942 4.1 71,349 4.0
Medicaid (Yes) 47,823 21.0 324,144 33.1 897,407 49.7
  1. alow poverty (< 10%), medium poverty (10.0–19.9%), high poverty (≥20%)