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Table 2 Primary and secondary outcomes among 4913 women randomized to one of three routes of oxytocin administration during the third stage of labor

From: Intramuscular injection, intravenous infusion, and intravenous bolus of oxytocin in the third stage of labor for prevention of postpartum hemorrhage: a three-arm randomized control trial

  Comparison of IV infusion to IM injection Comparison of IV bolus to IM injection
  IM injection (n = 2104) IV infusion (n = 2108) Estimatea
(95% CI)
P value IV bolus (n = 701) Estimatea
(95% CI)
P value
Primary outcomes
Mean total blood loss (SD) 204 (117) 188 (90) −5.9 (−8.5, −3.3) b < 0.001 180 (104) −11.1 (−14.7, −7.8) b < 0.001
Blood loss ≥500 ml, % (n) 1.5 (32) 0.8 (16) 0.50 (0.27, 0.91) 0.023 1.0 (7) 0.66 (0.29, 1.48) 0.311
Secondary outcomes
Mean min to placenta delivery (SD) 6.0 (3.8) 6.2 (4.1) 5.2 (1.5, 9.0) b 0.006 5.6 (3.4) −4.9 (−9.7, − 0.1)b 0.047
Postpartum blood loss, % (n) N = 2104 N = 2108   N = 701  
≥ 350 ml 7.7 (163) 4.4 (92) 0.56 (0.44, 0.72) < 0.001 4.0 (28) 0.52 (0.35, 0.76) 0.001
≥ 1000 ml 0.4 (9) 0.2 (4) 0.44 (0.14, 1.44) 0.176 0.1 (1) 0.33 (0.04, 2.63) 0.297
PPH diagnosed, % (n) 1.1 (22) 0.6 (12) 0.54 (0.27, 1.10) 0.089 0.9 (6) 0.82 (0.33, 2.01) 0.662
PPH diagnosed + ≥500 ml blood loss, % (n) 1.0 (21) 0.5 (11) 0.52 (0.25, 1.08) 0.080 0.7 (5) 0.71 (0.27, 1.89) 0.498
Hemoglobin measuresc N = 2094 N = 2103   N = 700  
Change in Hb, mean (SD) −0.54 (0.50) − 0.54 (0.46) 0.02 (− 0.29, 0.35)b 0.876 −0.51 (0.45) 0.29 (− 0.16, 0.75)b 0.209
Drop in Hb ≥2 g/dl, % (n) 2.1 (44) 1.8 (38) 0.86 (0.56, 1.32) 0.491 1.4 (10) 0.68 (0.34, 1.34) 0.267
Additional interventions, % (n) N = 2104 N = 2108   N = 701  
Manual removal of placenta 2.9 (60) 2.4 (50) 0.83 (0.57, 1.20) 0.330 1.3 (9) 0.45 (0.22, 0.90) 0.024
Additional uterotonics 1.1 (23) 0.6 (13) 0.56 (0.29, 1.11) 0.098 1.0 (7) 0.91 (0.39, 2.11) 0.833
Blood transfusion 0.5 (10) 0.2 (5) 0.50 (0.17, 1.46) 0.204 0.1 (1) 0.30 (0.04, 2.34) 0.251
  1. aEstimate reflects relative risk (RR) generated from log-binomial regression, except where otherwise noted
  2. bEstimates reflect the percent change in the mean outcome over different treatment groups – these were generated using linear regression on the log-transformed outcome and then applying the eq. )β[exp(·100 − β1], where = the regression coefficient for the log-transformed outcome
  3. cExcludes women who received blood transfusion
  4. In bold: comparison statistically significant at p ≤ 0.0435