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Table 4 Association of maternal and neonatal factors with the risk of congenital anomalies

From: Pattern of congenital anomalies at birth and their correlations with maternal characteristics in the maternity teaching hospital, Erbil city, Iraq

Variable   Total N (%) Study group (n = 130) Controlled group (n = 130) OR 95% CI P
Age, years Mean (SD) 27.3(6.7) 27.5(6.9) 27.1(6.6) 1 0.97–1.04 0.628
Parity Mean (SD) 1.9(1.7) 1.9(1.8) 1.9(1.7) 0.99 0.87–1.14 0.972
Birth weight, kg Mean (SD) 2.97(0.5) 2.70(0.6) 3.24(0.4) 0.15 0.08–0.28 < 0.001
Education ≤ secondary level 184(70.8) 91(70.0) 93(71.5) 0.92 0.54–1.58 0.892
> secondary level 76(29.2) 39(30.0) 37(28.5) 1 1
Occupation Housewive 237(91.2) 122(93.8) 115 (88.5) 1 1 0.189
Employed 23(8.8) 8(6.2) 15(11.5) 0.5 0.20–1.23
Medical diseases Yes 71(27.3) 69(53.1) 2(1.5) 72.3 17.1–351.0 < 0.001
No 189(72.7) 61(46.9) 128(98.5) 1 1
Adequate antenatal care Yes 155(59.6) 41(31.5) 114(87.7) 1 1 < 0.001
No 105 89(68.5) 16(12.3) 15.4 8.14–29.35
Smoking Yes 21(8.1) 16 (12.3) 5 (3.8) 3.5 1.24–9.88 0.012
No 239(91.9) 114(87.7) 125(96.2) 1 1
Previous abortion Yes 50(19.2) 14(10.8) 36(27.7) 0.31 0.16–0.61 0.001
No 210(80.8) 116(89.2) 94(72.3) 1 1
Previous congenital anomalies Yes 28(10.8) 27(20.8) 1(0.8) 33.8 4.51–253.0 < 0.001
No 232(89.2) 103(79.2) 129(99.2) 1 1
Consanguinity Yes 129(49.6) 90(69.2) 39(30.0) 5.25 3.09–8.90 < 0.001
No 131(50.4) 40(30.8) 91(70.0) 1 1
Sex of newborn Male 149(57.3) 73(56.2) 76(58.5) 1 1 0.802
Female 111(42.7) 57(43.8) 54(41.5) 1.09 0.67–1.79
  1. CI confidence interval, OR odds ratio