Skip to main content

Table 3 Anthropometric Risk Factors for Small for Gestational Age

From: Mid-arm muscle area and anthropometry predict low birth weight and poor pregnancy outcomes in Tanzanian women with HIV

Characteristics N Univariate Multivariatea
RR (95% CI) P-Value RR (95% CI) P-Value
Maternal weight change - overall (slope)
 Tertile 1 203 Reference < 0.0001^ Reference < 0.0001^
 Tertile 2 159 0.76 (0.64, 0.91)   0.75 (0.63, 0.89)  
 Tertile 3 107 0.53 (0.43, 0.65)   0.58 (0.47, 0.71)  
Maternal weight change - 2nd trimester (slope)    < 0.0001^   
 Tertile 1 172 Reference   Reference < 0.0001^
 Tertile 2 129 0.73 (0.61, 0.88)   0.72 (0.60, 0.87)  
 Tertile 3 89 0.52 (0.42, 0.65)   0.56 (0.45, 0.70)  
BMI change - overall (slope)
 Tertile 1 201 Reference < 0.0001^ Reference < 0.0001^
 Tertile 2 156 0.75 (0.63, 0.89)   0.75 (0.63, 0.88)  
 Tertile 3 113 0.56 (0.46, 0.69)   0.59 (0.49, 0.72)  
MAMA mean (cm)
  ≤ 33.1 330 Reference   Reference  
  > 33.1 239 0.76 (0.66, 0.88) < 0.0001^ 0.78 (0.68, 0.90) < 0.06^
MAMA change - overall (slope)
 Tertile 1 193 Reference 0.69^   
 Tertile 2 183 0.94 (0.79, 1.12)    
 Tertile 3 171 0.89 (0.74, 1.06)    
MAMA change - 2nd trimester (slope)
 Tertile 1 162 Reference 0.19^ Reference 0.63^
 Tertile 2 167 1.00 (0.83, 1.70)   0.99 (0.83, 1.19)  
 Tertile 3 135 0.84 (0.69, 1.02)   0.84 (0.70, 1.03)  
MUAC (mean)
  ≤ 26 cm 347 Reference   Reference  
  > 26 cm 222 0.74 (0.64, 0.85) < 0.0001^ 0.75 (0.65, 0.87) < 0.0001^
MUAC change - overall (slope)
 Tertile 1 148 Reference 0.99^   
 Tertile 2 155 1.02 (0.85, 1.24)    
 Tertile 3 133 0.90 (0.73, 1.10)    
MUAC change - 2nd trimester (Slope)
 Tertile 1 118 Reference 0.72^   
 Tertile 2 128 1.06 (0.86, 1.31)    
 Tertile 3 116 0.97 (0.78, 1.20)    
Adherence to iron supplementation
  < median 272 Reference   Reference  
  ≥ median 315 0.85 (0.63, 1.14) 0.01^ 1.08 (0.93, 1.24) 0.28^
  1. ^ Test for Trend
  2. a Multivariate Model adjusted for all variables in the univariate with a p-value less than 0.20 and marital status (married, other), education (none, 1–4 years, 5–8 years, 8+ years), employment (none, informal income, formal income), previous pregnancies (0, 1 to 3, 3+), daily food expenditure (< 500 Tsh, > 500 Tsh);WHO stage (1,2,3,4), previous low birth weight baby, previous caesarian delivery, previous baby died with first 7 days, malaria during pregnancy, and hypertension during this pregnancy. Anthropometric variables (weight, BMI, MAMA) were entered into separate multivariate models. Where both mean and change (slope) variables are significant they were both entered into the same model (e.g. weight and weight change