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Table 1 Baseline Characteristics

From: Mid-arm muscle area and anthropometry predict low birth weight and poor pregnancy outcomes in Tanzanian women with HIV

Maternal characteristics N (%)
Age (years) 28.3 (5)a
Gestational age at enrollment (weeks) 24.6 (5.5)a
Marital status
 Married/living with partner 1977 (86.9)
 Single 298 (13.1)
Previous pregnancies
 0 (primiparous) 522 (22.9)
 1 to 3 1574 (69.1)
 3 + 182 (7.9)
Education
 None 151 (6.6)
 1–4 years 85 (3.7)
 5–8 years 1567 (68.8)
 8 + years 476 (20.9)
Employment
 None (housewife) 1474 (64.1)
 Informal income (housewife with income) 463 (20.1)
 Formal income 279 (12.1)
Daily food expenditure (per person/day/Tshb)
  < 500 1117 (51.7)
  ≥ 500 1044 (48.3)
WHO stage (HIV)
 1 1015 (72.6)
 2 214 (15.3)
 3 125 (8.9)
 4 45 (3.2)
Obstetric history N (%)
 Previous low birth weight baby 128 (5.6)
 Previous preterm baby 115 (5)
 Previous caesarian delivery 100 (4.4)
 Previous baby died within first few days 405 (17.6)
 Previous stillbirth 94 (4.1)
 Previous abortion (less than 7 months) 423 (18.4)
 Family member with diabetes 230 (10)
Current pregnancy characteristics N (%)
 Malaria (prior to enrollment) 724 (31.5)
 Repeated fever (prior to enrollment) 224 (9.7)
 Malaria prophylaxis (prior to enrollment) 722 (31.4)
 Baseline CD4 count (enrollment) (cells/ml) 264.8 (219.1)a
 Baseline weight (at enrollment) (kg) 59.1 (10.9)a
 Mid Upper Arm Circumference (at enrollment)(cm) 26.1 (3.2)a
 Mid-Arm Muscle Area (at enrollment)(cm) 32.6 (7.4)a
 Mean systolic blood pressure (at enrollment) (mm/hg) 108.8 (13.2)a
 Mean diastolic blood pressure (at enrollment) (mm/hg) 65.5 (9.2)a
 Adherence to iron supplements (fraction adhered during pregnancy) 0.65 (0.4)a
 Average prenatal visits 7.8 (3.0)a
  1. aMean and standard deviation. Means presented are based on baseline measures only;bSVD Standard vaginal delivery; TShs, Tanzanian shillings (US dollar is estimated at approximately 1200 shillings)