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Table 5 Assessment of risk of bias of included studies by STROBE Checklist

From: Prevalence and risk factors of gestational diabetes mellitus in Asia: a systematic review and meta-analysis

  1a 1b 2 3 4 5 6a 6b 7 8 9 10 11 12a 12b 12c 12d 12e 13a 13b 13c 14a 14b 14c 15 16a 16b 16c 17 18 19 20 21 22
Alfadhli et al., 2015 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0
Ali et al., 2016 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1
Al-Kuwari et al., 2011 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0
Al-Rowaily et al., 2010 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0
Al-Rubeaan e al., 2014 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1
Al-Shawaf et al., 1988 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0
Aziz et al., 2017 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0
Bener et al., 2011 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0
Bhatt et al., 2015 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1
Cheuk et al., 2016 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0
Chodick et al., 2010 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0
Dahiya et al., 2014 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0
Das et al., 2004 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0
De Seymour et al., 2016 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1
Deerochanawong et al., 1996 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0
Garshasbi et al., 2008 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0
Gracelyn and Saranya2016 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1
Haideagh et al., 2005 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0
Hariharan et al., 2017 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0
Herath et al., 2016 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0
Hirst et al., 2012 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1
Hossain et al., 2017 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0
Hossein-Nezhad et al.,2007 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0
Iqbal et al., 2007 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1
Jadhav and Wankhede 2017 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1
Jang et al., 1998 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1
Jesmin et al., 2014 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1
Kalra et al., 2013 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0
Kalyani et al., 2014 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1
Khwaja et al., 1989 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0
Koo et al., 2016 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1
Krishnaveni et al., 2007 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1
Leng et al., 2016 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1
Li et al., 2014 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1
Li et al., 2016 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0
Lin et al., 2015 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0
Maegawa et al., 2003 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0
Makwana et al., 2017 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1
Mizuno et al., 2016 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1
Mohammadzadeh et al., 2015 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1
Moradi et al., 2015 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0
Mustafa 2015 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0
Nayak et al., 2013 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1
Nielsen et al., 2016 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1
Parhofer et al., 2013 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1
Pirjani et al.,2016 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0
Raja et al., 2014 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0
Rajput et al., 2013 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0
Rajput et al., 2014 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0
Rao et al., 2015 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0
Saisho et al., 2013 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0
Sayeed et al., 2005 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1
Sella et al., 2013 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0
Sella et al., 2011 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0
Shahbazian et al.,2016 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1
Shaman et al., 2015 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1
Shamsuddin et al., 2001 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0
Shang et al., 2014 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1
Sharma et al., 2016 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1
Shimodaira et al., 2016 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0
Shrestha and Chawla 2011 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0
Shridevi et al., 2015 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1
Singh and Uma 2013 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0
Siribaddana et al., 1998 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0
Soheilykhak et al., 2010 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1
Song et al., 2017 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1
Srichumchit et al., 2015 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1
Sudasinghe et al., 2016 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1
Suntorn and Panichkul 2015 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0
Swaroop et al., 2015 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1
Tan et al., 2009 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0
Thapa et al., 2015 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1
Thathagari et al., 2016 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1
Tran et al., 2013 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1
Tripathi et al., 2011 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0
Vakili et al., 2016 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0
Wagaarachchi et al., 2001 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1
Wahabi et al., 2017 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1
Warunpitikul and Aswakul 2014 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1
Yang et al., 2013 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1
Zargar et al., 2004 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0
Zhang et al., 2011 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1
Zhang et al., 2015 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1
Zhu et al., 2017 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1
  1. 1(Presence of item)
  2. 0(Absence of item)
  3. Quality is defined by a STROBE score ≥ 14/22 (good) and < 14/22 (poor)