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Table 4 Pairwise comparisons of obstetric and perinatal outcomes among study population

From: Obstetric and perinatal outcomes of singleton pregnancies conceived via assisted reproductive technology complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus: a prospective cohort study

Variables ART-GDM vs. ART ART-GDM vs.
SC- GDM
ART vs. SC-GDM
Obstetrics outcomes
 PIH, OR adjusted (95% CI) 2.09 (0.91–4.81) 1.83 (0.79–4.27) 0.79 (0.30–2.11)
 Preeclampsia, OR adjusted (95% CI) 1.45 (0.53–3.99) 3.31(1.03–10.64) * 1.56 (0.41–5.89)
 Antepartum hemorrhage, OR adjusted (95% CI) 1.57(0.69–3.57) 1.88(0.74–4.79) 1.54(0.53–4.50)
 Emergency CS, OR adjusted (95% CI) 1.95 (1.08–3.50) * 1.27(0.68–2.39) 1.43 (0.74–2.77)
Perinatal outcomes
 Preterm birth, OR adjusted (95% CI) 2.46(1.04–5.85) * 1.60(0.67–3.84) 0.84 (0.30–2.38)
 IUGR, OR adjusted (95% CI) 1.04(0.43–2.52) 0.96(0.34–2.69) 1.05(0.39–2.86)
 Small for gestational age, OR adjusted (95% CI) 1.05(0.50–2.22) 1.82(0.70–4.73) 1.89(0.74–4.84)
 Large for gestational age, OR adjusted (95% CI) 2.54(0.58–11.10) 1.13(0.33–3.87) 0.55(0.12–2.53)
 Macrosomia, OR adjusted (95% CI) 1.39(0.27–7.14) 0.71(0.16–3.22) 0.63(0.13–3.01)
 Low birth weight, OR adjusted (95% CI) 1.53(0.62–3.74) 1.48(0.52–4.18) 1.14(0.38–3.41)
 NICU admission, OR adjusted (95% CI) 1.91(0.93–3.93) 2.94(1.23–7.05) * 1.42(0.57–3.53)
 Respiratory distress, OR adjusted (95% CI) 2.29(0.84–6.23) 1.09(0.42–2.80) 0.44(0.15–1.28)
 Neonatal hypoglycemia, OR adjusted (95% CI) 4.68(1.04–15.65) * 6.53(1.77–24.16) * 2.02(0.36–11.43)
 Perinatal mortality, OR adjusted (95% CI) 1 3.07(0.41–22.77) 1
  1. GDM gestational diabetes mellitus, SC spontaneous conception, ART assisted reproductive technology, PIH pregnancy induced hypertension, IUGR Intrauterine growth restriction, NICU neonatal intensive care unit
  2. OR Crude Odds Ratio, CI Confidence Interval
  3. ORs were adjusted for age, parity and pre-pregnancy body mass index
  4. *P < 0.05 was considered significant