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Table 1 Characteristics of pregnant women participated in the survey in Wuhan, China

From: Association of intimate partner violence during pregnancy, prenatal depression, and adverse birth outcomes in Wuhan, China

Variables IPV (%) No IPV (%) χ2 value P value
Age (years)
 20–24 43 (20.00) 172 (80.00) 0.6547 0.8838
 25–29 62 (17.42) 294 (82.58)   
 30–34 33 (18.44) 146 (81.56)   
 35+ 8 (17.02) 39 (82.98)   
Maternal education level**
 Junior middle school or below 30 (24.59) 92 (75.41) 17.2640 0.0006
 High school 52 (25.49) 152 (74.51)   
 Vocational degree 25 (13.66) 158 (86.34)   
 Bachelor degree or above 39 (13.54) 249 (86.46)   
Maternal occupation
 Employed 70 (14.68) 407 (85.32) 10.5410 0.0012
 Unemployed 76 (23.75) 244 (76.25)   
Education level of husband
 Junior middle school or below 31 (27.68) 81 (72.32) 9.7016 0.0213
 High school 39 (19.50) 161 (80.5)   
 Vocational degree 30 (17.65) 140 (82.35)   
 Bachelor degree or above 46 (14.60) 269 (85.4)   
Occupation of husbands
 Employed 126 (18.89) 541 (81.11)   
 Unemployed 20 (15.38) 110 (84.62)   
Household income monthly (Yuan)
  > 3000 43 (25.6) 125 (74.4) 0.8937 0.3445
 3000- 61 (19.55) 251 (80.45)   
 6000- 28 (14.66) 163 (85.34)   
  ≥ 10,000 14 (11.11) 112 (88.89)   
Abortion history**
 Yes 66 (23.9) 210 (76.1) 8.8310 0.0030
 No 80 (15.4) 441 (84.6)   
Parity**
 1 67 (14.5) 396 (85.5) 11.9798 0.0025
 2 44 (21.9) 157 (78.1)   
  ≥ 3 35 (26.3) 98 (73.7)   
Husband’s smoking behavior
 Yes 80 (19.4) 332 (80.6) 0.6882 0.4068
 No 66 (17.1) 319 (82.9)   
Husband’s drinking behavior
 Yes 113 (17.4) 537 (82.6) 2.0550 0.1517
 No 33 (22.4) 114 (77.6)   
Pregnancy related complications
 Yes 31 (19.38) 129 (80.62) 0.1493 0.6992
 No 115 (18.05) 522 (81.95)   
Adverse birth outcomes
 Yes 39 (26.53) 108 (73.47) 8.1744 0.0042
 No 107 (16.44) 544 (83.56)   
Prenatal depression
 Yes 43 (32.58) 89 (67.42) 21.4908 <.0001
 No 103 (15.49) 562 (84.51)   
Total 146 (18.32) 651 (81.68)