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Table 4 Factors determining the risk of inadequate and excessive GWG (adjusted)

From: Factors associated with gestational weight gain: a cross-sectional survey

Variables Gestational weight gain
Inadequate (N = 100) Adequate (N = 207) Excessive (N = 151)
Age
 < 30 years 1.0   1.0
 ≥30 years 1.30 (0.70–2.44) 1.0 1.67 (0.97–2.88)
p value 0.410   0.065
Pre-pregnancy BMI
 < 18.5 kg/m2 2.61 (1.17–5.78) 1.0 0.20 (0.04–0.94)
p value 0.018   0.041
 18.5–24.9 kg/m2 1.0   1.0
 ≥25.0 kg/m2 0.88 (0.21–3.73) 1.0 7.00 (2.87–17.08)
p value 0.872   <0.001
Place of residence
 city 1.0   1.0
 town 0.70 (0.34–1.44) 1.0 1.27 (0.65–2.49)
p value 0.330   0.488
 village 0.68 (0.36–1.29) 1.0 1.13 (0.62–2.08)
p value 0.240   0.689
Education
 university 1.0   1.0
 secondary school 1.41 (0.75–2.65) 1.0 0.86 (0.46–1.59)
p value 0.289   0.627
 lower 1.82 (0.52–6.42) 1.0 1.70 (0.54–5.39)
p value 0.350   0.365
Having adequate money to buy necessary food
 yes 1.0   1.0
 no -* 1.0 1.09 (0.20–6.04)
p value   0.924
Smoking
 non-smokers 1.0   1.0
 passive smokers 0.88 (0.47–1.63) 1.0 0.96 (0.54–1.70)
p value 0.683   0.879
 current smokers 1.64 (0.64–4.20) 1.0 1.08 (0.39–2.98)
p value 0.305   0.878
 women who quit smoking after conception 2.08 (0.24–18.02) 1.0 7.32 (1.39–38.56)
p value 0.506   0.019
Persistent vomiting
 no 1.0   1.0
 yes, in the 1st trimester of pregnancy 0.90 (0.51–1.60) 1.0 0.63 (0.37–1.08)
p value 0.732   0.094
 yes, during the whole pregnancy 0.48 (0.13–1.79) 1.0 0.44 (0.12–1.60)
p value 0.276   0.214
Parity
 first 1.0   1.0
 second 0.91 (0.47–1.77) 1.0 0.74 (0.42–1.29)
p value 0.789   0.289
 third or subsequent labour 0.39 (0.16–0.96) 1.0 0.37 (0.16–0.84)
p value 0.042   0.018
Unhealthy DP
 Q1 1.0   1.0
 Q2 1.43 (0.68–3.00) 1.0 0.62 (0.26–1.04)
p value 0.342   0.066
 Q3 1.45 (0.65–3.21) 1.0 0.97 (0.49–1.95)
p value 0.362   0.942
 Q4 1.15 (0.49–2.71) 1.0 1.00 (0.48–2.08)
p value 0.754   0.996
Varied DP
 Q1 1.0   1.0
 Q2 1.53 (0.76–3.09) 1.0 1.41 (0.70–2.85)
p value 0.234   0.332
 Q3 1.04 (0.49–2.21) 1.0 1.38 (0.69–2.78)
p value 0.916   0.367
 Q4 0.83 (0.36–1.80) 1.0 1.85 (0.92–2.78)
p value 0.640   0.085
Prudent DP
 Q1 1.0   1.0
 Q2 1.27 (0.60–2.69) 1.0 0.70 (0.35–1.39)
p value 0.532   0.301
 Q3 0.62 (0.28–1.39) 1.0 0.72 (0.38–1.39)
p value 0.247   0.329
 Q4 1.38 (0.66–2.91) 1.0 0.47 (0.23–0.97)
p value 0.394   0.033
  1. The numbers in bold indicate statistically significant results, DP represents dietary pattern, Q represents quartile, * represents the number of individuals in the category ‘having adequate money to buy necessary food, answer “no”, and the reference group is “adequate” GWG