Skip to main content

Table 3 Factors determining the risk of inadequate and excessive GWG (unadjusted)

From: Factors associated with gestational weight gain: a cross-sectional survey

Variables Gestational weight gain
Inadequate (N = 100) Adequate (N = 207) Excessive (N = 151)
Age
 < 30 years 1.0   1.0
 ≥30 years 1.02 (0.63–1.64) 1.0 1.36 (0.89–2.08)
p value 0.940   0.159
Pre-pregnancy BMI
 < 18.5 kg/m2 2.14 (1.05–4.36) 1.0 0.17 (0.04–0.76)
p value 0.037   0.020
 18.5–24.9 kg/m2 1.0   1.0
 ≥25.0 kg/m2 0.85 (0.22–3.28) 1.0 6.44 (2.87–14.42)
p value 0.812   <0.001
Place of residence
 city 1.0   1.0
 town 0.80 (0.42–1.53) 1.0 1.06 (0.60–1.88)
p value 0.502   0.833
 village 0.73 (0.43–1.25) 1.0 1.10 (0.69–1.76)
p value 0.253   0.695
Education
 university    
 secondary school 1.21 (0.71–2.06) 1.0 1.01 (0.62–1.63)
p value 0.484   0.978
 lower 1.33 (0.46–3.82) 1.0 1.70 (0.71–4.10)
p value 0.595   0.234
Having adequate money to buy necessary food
 yes 1.0   1.0
 no -* 1.0 0.82 (0.19–3.51)
p value   0.794
Smoking
 non-smokers 1.0   1.0
 passive smokers 0.94 (0.54–1.62) 1.0 0.90 (0.56–1.45)
p value 0.824   0.670
 current smokers 1.64 (0.78–3.44) 1.0 0.70 (0.31–1.57)
p value 0.193   0.383
 women who quit smoking after conception 2.18 (0.30–15.89) 1.0 9.07 (1.20–41.23)
p value 0.441   0.004
Persistent vomiting
 no 1.0   1.0
 yes, in the 1st trimester of pregnancy 0.95 (0.58–1.58) 1.0 0.78 (0.50–1.22)
p value 0.848   0.272
 yes, during the whole pregnancy 0.61 (0.19–1.95) 1.0 0.37 (0.12–1.18)
p value 0.405   0.094
Parity
 first 1.0   1.0
 second 0.99 (0.59–1.66) 1.0 1.03 (0.65–1.64)
p value 0.956   0.884
 third or subsequent labour 0.49 (0.20–1.20) 1.0 0.61 (0.30–1.27)
p value 0.118   0.186
Unhealthy DP
 Q1 1.0   1.0
 Q2 1.17 (0.59–2.32) 1.0 0.69 (0.38–1.26)
p value 0.647   0.230
 Q3 1.51 (0.75–3.01) 1.0 1.05 (0.58–1.89)
p value 0.245   0.872
 Q4 1.14 (0.57–2.30) 1.0 0.91 (0.51–1.62)
p value 0.709   0.737
Varied DP
 Q1 1.0   1.0
 Q2 1.36 (0.71–2.60) 1.0 1.38 (0.74–2.55)
p value 0.349   0.309
 Q3 1.16 (0.59–2.26) 1.0 1.57 (0.85–2.88)
p value 0.667   0.149
 Q4 0.88 (0.44–1.78) 1.0 1.89 (1.04–3.42)
p value 0.721   0.036
Prudent DP
 Q1 1.0   1.0
 Q2 1.50 (0.75–3.01) 1.0 0.81 (0.45–1.46)
p value 0.253   0.486
 Q3 0.74 (0.35–1.56) 1.0 0.64 (0.36–1.13)
p value 0.432   0.124
 Q4 1.34 (0.68–2.65) 1.0 0.47 (0.26–0.87)
p value 0.396   0.016
  1. The numbers in bold indicate statistically significant results; DP represents dietary pattern; Q represents quartile; * represents the number of individuals in the category ‘having adequate money to buy necessary food, answer no’, and the reference group is “adequate” GWG