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Table 1 The characteristics of the study participants in three categories of GWG (N%; X ± SD)

From: Factors associated with gestational weight gain: a cross-sectional survey

Variables Gestational weight gain p value
Inadequate (N = 100)
9.49 ± 2.01 kg
Adequate (N = 207)
13.76 ± 1.66 kg
Excessive (N = 151)
19.60 ± 4.04 kg
Age (X ± SD) 29.19 ± 4.87 29.62 ± 4.93 30.43 ± 3.80 0.090A
Pre-pregnancy BMI (X ± SD) 20.92 ± 2.46 21.32 ± 2.50 22.82 ± 3.57a,b < 0.001 A
Place of residence
 village 33 (33.0) 80 (38.6) 61 (40.4) 0.700C
 town 19 (19.0) 42 (20.3) 31 (20.5)  
 city 48 (48.0) 85 (41.1) 59 (39.1)  
Education
 lower than secondary school 6 (6.0) 10 (4.8) 12 (7.9) 0.729C
 secondary school 30 (30.0) 55 (26.6) 39 (25.8)  
 university 64 (64.0) 142 (68.6) 100 (66.2)  
 Having adequate money to buy necessary food    1  
 yes 100 (100.0) 202 (97.6) 47 (98.0) 0.306C
 no 0 (0.0) 5 (2.4) 3 (2.0)  
Smoking
 non-smokers 55 (55.0) 120 (58.0) 86 (57.0) 0.003 C
 passive smokers 28 (28.0) 65 (31.4) 42 (27.8)  
 current smokers 15 (15.0) 20 (9.7) 10 (6.6)  
 women who quit smoking after conception 2 (2.0) 2 (1.0) 13 (8.6)  
Persistent vomiting
 no 60 (60.0) 119 (57.5) 98 (65.3) 0.411C
 yes, in the 1st trimester of pregnancy 36 (36.0) 75 (36.2) 48 (32.0)  
 yes, during the whole pregnancy 4 (4.0) 13 (6.3) 4 (2.7)  
Parity
 first 54 (54.0) 102 (49.3) 80 (51.5) 0.243C
 second 36 (36.0) 69 (33.3) 56 (37.1)  
 third or subsequent labour 10 (10.0) 36 (17.4) 15 (9.9)  
Unhealthy DP
 Q1 21 (21.0) 52 (25.1) 42 (27.8) 0.715C
 Q2 27 (27.0) 57 (27.5) 32 (21.2)  
 Q3 28 (28.0) 46 (22.2) 39 (25.8)  
 Q4 24 (24.0) 52 (25.1) 38 (25.2)  
Varied DP
 Q1 26 (26.0) 59 (28.5) 30 (19.9) 0.246C
 Q2 30 (30.0) 50 (24.2) 35 (23.2)  
 Q3 25 (25.0) 49 (23.7) 39 (25.8)  
 Q4 19 (19.0) 49 (23.7) 47 (31.1)  
Prudent DP
 Q1 20 (20.0) 47 (22.7) 48 (31.8) 0.036 C
 Q2 30 (30.0) 47 (22.7) 39 (25.8)  
 Q3 18 (18.0) 57 (27.5) 37 (24.5)  
 Q4 32 (32.0) 56 (27.1) 27 (17.9)  
  1. Q represents quartile; DP represents dietary pattern; A represents one-way ANOVA; and C represents the chi-square test. The numbers in bold indicate statistically significant results; a represents the Bonferroni post hoc test p < 0.001 (adequate–excessive; and b represents the Bonferroni post hoc test p < 0.001 (inadequate–excessive)