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Table 4: Concentration Indices with Covariates: Ghana (years 2003, 2008 & 2014) and Nigeria (years 2003, 2008 & 2013)

From: Examining trends in inequality in the use of reproductive health care services in Ghana and Nigeria

Service type / covariate Ghana Nigeria
2003 2008 2014 2003 2008 2013
Delivery: home -0.14* -0.13* -0.1* -0.12* -0.15* -0.14*
 Age group
  15-24 -0.13* -0.09* -0.07* -0.09* -0.12* -0.11*
  25-49 -0.15* -0.14* -0.1* -0.12* -0.16* -0.15*
 Marital status
  Never -0.1* -0.1* -0.07* -0.09* -0.09* -0.09*
  Currently / previously -0.14* -0.13* -0.1* -0.11* -0.15* -0.14*
 Maternal occupation
  Not working -0.14* -0.11* -0.07* -0.11* -0.14* -0.13*
  Professional / sales -0.12* -0.09* -0.06* -0.13* -0.17* -0.16*
  Agriculture -0.06* -0.09* -0.06* -0.08* -0.08* -0.06*
  Others -0.13* -0.1* -0.08* -0.11* -0.17* -0.15*
 Location
  Urban -0.07* -0.05* -0.04* -0.09* -0.12* -0.09*
  Rural -0.07* -0.1* -0.07* -0.08* -0.11* -0.09*
Delivery: government health facility 0.10* 0.10* 0.06* 0.05* 0.07* 0.08*
 Age group
  15-24 0.08* 0.07* 0.06* 0.04* 0.06* 0.07*
  25-49 0.11* 0.11* 0.07* 0.06* 0.08* 0.08*
 Marital status
  Never 0.04 0.1* 0.06* 0.01 0.03 0.03
  Currently / previously 0.11* 0.1* 0.07* 0.05* 0.07* 0.08*
 Maternal occupation
  Not working 0.08* 0.06* 0.04* 0.06* 0.07* 0.08*
  Professional / sales 0.09* 0.07* 0.03* 0.05* 0.08* 0.08*
  Agriculture 0.04* 0.07* 0.06* 0.03 0.05* 0.04*
  Others 0.11* 0.07* 0.06* 0.05* 0.07* 0.07*
 Location
  Urban 0.04* 0.03* 0.01 0.03 0.03* 0.03*
  Rural 0.05* 0.08* 0.06* 0.03* 0.06* 0.06*
Delivery: private health facility 0.04* 0.03* 0.03* 0.06* 0.08* 0.07*
 Age group
  15-24 0.04* 0.02 0.01 0.05* 0.05* 0.05*
  25-49 0.04* 0.03* 0.03* 0.07* 0.09* 0.07*
 Marital status
  Never 0.06 0 0.01 0.09* 0.06* 0.05*
  Currently / previously 0.04* 0.03* 0.03* 0.06* 0.08* 0.07*
 Maternal occupation
  Not working 0.06* 0.06* 0.03 0.06* 0.06* 0.05*
  Professional / sales 0.03* 0.02 0.04* 0.07* 0.09* 0.08*
  Agriculture 0.01* 0.02* 0 0.06* 0.03* 0.01
  Others 0.02* 0.02 0.02 0.06* 0.09* 0.07*
 Location
  Urban 0.03 0.01 0.03* 0.06* 0.09* 0.06*
  Rural 0.01* 0.02* 0.01 0.04* 0.04* 0.03*
Birth assistance: doctor 0.03* 0.04* 0.05* 0.04* 0.06* 0.05*
 Age group
  15-24 0.03* 0.01 0.02 0.03* 0.03* 0.03*
  25-49 0.04* 0.05* 0.06* 0.04* 0.06* 0.06*
 Marital status
  Never 0.06 0.03 0.04* 0.11* 0.03* 0.03*
  Currently / previously 0.03* 0.04* 0.05* 0.03* 0.06* 0.05*
 Maternal occupation
  Not working 0.05* 0.06* 0.03* 0.03* 0.05* 0.04*
  Professional / sales 0.04* 0.04* 0.06* 0.05* 0.07* 0.06*
  Agriculture 0.01* 0.01 0.01 0.04 0.01* 0.02*
  Others 0.04* 0.04* 0.06* 0.03* 0.06* 0.05*
 Location
  Urban 0.04* 0.04* 0.05* 0.05* 0.08* 0.07*
  Rural 0.01 0.02* 0.03* 0.01* 0.02* 0.02*
C Section 0.45* 0.30* 0.31* 0.49* 0.58* 0.49*
 Age group
  15-24 0.37 0.05 0.07 0.22 0.46* 0.33*
  25-49 0.47* 0.34* 0.32* 0.54* 0.59* 0.52*
 Marital status
  Never 0.38 0.26 0.2 0.53 0.57* 0.27
  Currently / previously 0.45* 0.31* 0.32* 0.48* 0.58* 0.5*
 Maternal occupation
  Not working 0.36 0.26 0.15 0.5* 0.6* 0.59*
  Professional / sales 0.45* 0.19* 0.28* 0.44* 0.55* 0.49*
  Agriculture 0.14 0.28 0.11 0.61 0.19 0.28
  Others 0.43 0.25 0.27* 0.45 0.46* 0.43*
 Location
  Urban 0.36* 0.11 0.19* 0.36* 0.41* 0.36*
  Rural 0.14 0.38* 0.3* 0.29 0.52* 0.37*
  1. Note: Magnitudes of regional variation is available in Additional file 1.
  2. *p ≤ 0.01