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Table 3: Concentration Indices with Covariates: Ghana (years 2003, 2008 & 2014) and Nigeria (years 2003, 2008 & 2013)

From: Examining trends in inequality in the use of reproductive health care services in Ghana and Nigeria

Service type / covariate Ghana Nigeria
2003 2008 2014 2003 2008 2013
Health worker’s assistance during pregnancy outside a facility -0.25* -0.21* -0.27* -0.17* -0.21* -0.21*
 Age group
  15-24 -0.23* -0.06 -0.19* -0.13* -0.14* -0.15*
  25-49 -0.26* -0.25* -0.29* -0.19* -0.23* -0.23*
 Marital status
  Never -0.21* -0.2 -0.2 -0.23 -0.15* -0.17*
  Currently / previously -0.25* -0.21* -0.28* -0.17* -0.21* -0.21*
 Maternal occupation
  Not working -0.29* -0.32* -0.2* -0.16* -0.17* -0.17*
  Professional / sales -0.35* -0.2* -0.29* -0.19* -0.28* -0.26*
  Agriculture -0.07* -0.03 -0.08 -0.14* -0.09* -0.1*
  Others -0.29* -0.24* -0.23* -0.18* -0.23* -0.23*
 Location
  Urban -0.3* -0.18* -0.19* -0.22* -0.27* -0.24*
  Rural -0.09* -0.07* -0.17* -0.1* -0.13* -0.11*
ANC: nurse assisted 0.29* 0.24* 0.11* 0.33* 0.4* 0.39*
 Age group
  15-24 0.26* 0.19* 0.11* 0.32* 0.4* 0.39*
  25-49 0.3* 0.25* 0.11* 0.33* 0.39* 0.39*
 Marital status
  Never 0.1 0.11* 0.09* 0.15 0.23* 0.16*
  Currently / previously 0.29* 0.24* 0.11* 0.34* 0.4* 0.4*
 Maternal occupation
  Not working 0.26* 0.2* 0.08* 0.46* 0.49* 0.47*
  Professional / sales 0.16* 0.14* 0.04* 0.3* 0.35* 0.38*
  Agriculture 0.21* 0.26* 0.12* 0.28* 0.26* 0.2*
  Others 0.21* 0.14* 0.08* 0.29* 0.4* 0.38*
 Location
  Urban 0.06* 0.06* 0.02 0.16* 0.17* 0.12*
  Rural 0.24* 0.24* 0.12* 0.31* 0.41* 0.43*
ANC: government health facility -0.02* -0.03* -0.04* -0.04 -0.07* -0.07*
 Age group
  15-24 -0.01 -0.01 -0.02 -0.04 -0.05* -0.06*
  25-49 -0.02* -0.04* -0.05* -0.04 -0.07* -0.07*
 Marital status
  Never -0.08* 0.02 0 -0.15 -0.03 -0.05
  Currently / previously -0.02* -0.03* -0.04* -0.04 -0.07* -0.07*
 Maternal occupation
  Not working -0.01 -0.04* -0.03* -0.02 -0.08* -0.08*
  Professional / sales -0.02 -0.02 -0.05* -0.05* -0.08* -0.08*
  Agriculture 0 -0.01 0 -0.06 0 -0.01
  Others -0.03 -0.05* -0.02 -0.07 -0.1* -0.09*
 Location
 Urban -0.03* -0.01 -0.04* -0.03 -0.1* -0.07*
 Rural 0 -0.02* -0.02* -0.03 -0.03* -0.03*
ANC: private health facility 0.24* 0.3* 0.36* 0.2* 0.23* 0.27*
 Age group
  15-24 0.15 0.05 0.21 0.23* 0.21* 0.27*
  25-49 0.27* 0.34* 0.38* 0.19* 0.23* 0.25*
 Marital status
  Never 0.44* -0.1 0.26 0.37* 0.17 0.17*
  Currently / previously 0.23* 0.33* 0.36* 0.19* 0.23* 0.27*
 Maternal occupation
  Not working 0.12 0.42* 0.27* 0.24* 0.35* 0.37*
  Professional / sales 0.17* 0.16 0.32* 0.18* 0.23* 0.27*
  Agriculture 0.15 0.12 -0.08 0.2 0.01 0.01
  Others 0.19* 0.32* 0.27* 0.24* 0.26* 0.33*
 Location
  Urban 0.17* 0.11 0.26* 0.14* 0.21* 0.17*
  Rural 0.09 0.32* 0.26* 0.18 0.15* 0.21*
ANC: 1st trimester 0.09* 0.09* 0.07* -0.01 0.03 0.04
 Age group
  15-24 0.08* 0.08 0.05 0.05 -0.03 0.01
  25-49 0.09* 0.09* 0.07* -0.03 0.04* 0.04
 Marital status
  Never 0.03 0.01 0.08* 0.24 -0.06 0.02
  Currently / previously 0.09* 0.1* 0.07* -0.02 0.03 0.04
 Maternal occupation
  Not working 0.13* 0.1* 0.08* 0.07 0.02 0.06
  Professional / sales 0.07* 0.07* 0.05* -0.05 0.06* 0.04
  Agriculture 0.06* 0.06 0.02 0 0.01 -0.06
  Others 0.04 0.04 0.05* -0.03 0.1* 0.11*
 Location
  Urban 0.06* 0.08* 0.07* 0.07 0.1* 0.09*
  Rural 0.06* 0.08* 0.07* -0.06 0.01 0.04*
ANC: +4 tetanus injection 0.05* 0.03* 0.02* 0.23* 0.27* 0.22*
 Age group
  15-24 0.05* 0.04* 0.02* 0.24* 0.28* 0.22*
  25-49 0.05* 0.03* 0.02* 0.23* 0.25* 0.22*
 Marital status
  Never 0.01 0.07* 0.02 0.08 0.1* 0.07*
  Currently / previously 0.05* 0.03* 0.02* 0.24* 0.27* 0.23*
 Maternal occupation
  Not working 0.04 0.06* 0.01 0.33* 0.35* 0.29*
  Professional / sales 0.02* 0.02* 0.01 0.24* 0.23* 0.21*
  Agriculture 0.05* 0.02 0.01 0.14* 0.18* 0.1*
  Others 0.03* 0.03* 0.01 0.21* 0.27* 0.19*
 Location
  Urban 0.01 0.02* 0.01 0.11* 0.09* 0.06*
  Rural 0.03* 0.03* 0.02* 0.2* 0.28* 0.23*
ANC: home -0.26* -0.25* -0.1 -0.23* -0.15* 0.05
 Age group
  15-24 -0.07 -0.23 0.15 -0.23 -0.08 0.21*
  25-49 -0.3* -0.26 -0.19 -0.24* -0.17* 0.01
 Marital status+
  Never 0.08 - -0.34 -0.31 -0.08 -0.02
  Currently / previously -0.27* - -0.07 -0.22* -0.16* 0.06
 Maternal occupation+
  Not working -0.22 - 0.21 -0.33 -0.22* 0.05
  Professional / sales -0.27 - -0.13 -0.22 -0.14* 0.09
  Agriculture -0.24 - -0.06 0.05 0.01 0.11
  Others -0.43 - -0.53 -0.24 -0.07 0.13
 Location+
  Urban -0.41 - -0.18 -0.29* -0.13 -0.02
  Rural -0.1 - 0.03 -0.12 -0.09* 0.11
  1. Note: Magnitudes of regional variation is available in Additional file 1.
  2. *p ≤ 0.01
  3. +In 2008 the mean value of outcome is undefined.