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Table 2: Concentration Indices with Covariates: Ghana (years 2003, 2008 & 2014) and Nigeria (years 2003, 2008 & 2013)

From: Examining trends in inequality in the use of reproductive health care services in Ghana and Nigeria

Service type / covariate Ghana Nigeria
2003 2008 2014 2003 2008 2013
Family planning info: health facility -0.01 -0.04 -0.04* 0.14* 0.14* 0.15*
 Age group
  15-24 0* 0.05 -0.02 0.14 0.18* 0.18*
  25-49 -0.01 -0.06 -0.05* 0.13* 0.12* 0.14*
 Marital status
  Never -0.02 -0.06 -0.01 0.04 0.06 0.03
  Currently / previously -0.01 -0.04 -0.04* 0.14* 0.14* 0.16*
 Maternal occupation
  Not working 0.05 0 0 0.2 0.18* 0.21*
  Professional / sales 0 -0.04 -0.07* 0.14* 0.09* 0.12*
  Agriculture -0.01 -0.05 0 0.06 0.11* 0.08
  Others -0.02 0.02 -0.01 0.13 0.16* 0.14*
 Location
  Urban -0.02 -0.01 -0.02 0.02 0.08* 0.05*
  Rural -0.02 -0.01 -0.01 0.15 0.16* 0.19*
Family planning worker visit -0.09* -0.02 -0.05 0.25* 0.39* 0.4*
 Age group
  15-24 0.01 0.05 0.01 0.22 0.49* 0.43*
  25-49 -0.11* -0.04 -0.06 0.25* 0.35* 0.38*
 Marital status -0.09* -0.02 -0.05 0.25* 0.39* 0.4*
  Never -0.1 0.09 0.03 -0.03 -0.04 0.01
  Currently / previously -0.09* -0.02 -0.06 0.26* 0.4* 0.41*
 Maternal occupation
  Not working 0.07 0.15 -0.03 0.43* 0.51* 0.44*
  Professional / sales -0.18* -0.08 0.02 0.27* 0.32* 0.37*
  Agriculture -0.06 -0.14* 0.02 0.07 0.25* 0.2*
  Others -0.15 0.06 -0.13 0.31 0.4* 0.36*
 Location
  Urban -0.15* -0.01 0 0.18* 0.2* 0.14*
  Rural -0.04 -0.02 0 0.22 0.39* 0.42*
Family planning: TV 0.37* 0.4* 0.28* 0.5* 0.58* 0.56*
 Age group
  15-24 0.3* 0.37* 0.26* 0.44* 0.6* 0.61*
  25-49 0.39* 0.41* 0.29* 0.51* 0.56* 0.53*
 Marital status
  Never 0.2* 0.22* 0.2* 0.12 0.29* 0.31*
  Currently / previously 0.37* 0.42* 0.29* 0.51* 0.59* 0.57*
 Maternal occupation
  Not working 0.33* 0.4* 0.24* 0.52* 0.64* 0.65*
  Professional / sales 0.23* 0.27* 0.15* 0.45* 0.48* 0.5*
  Agriculture 0.32* 0.46* 0.32* 0.51* 0.41* 0.32*
  Others 0.27* 0.26* 0.21* 0.42* 0.51* 0.49*
 Location
  Urban 0.17* 0.19* 0.13* 0.29* 0.28* 0.25*
  Rural 0.32* 0.44* 0.35* 0.39* 0.63* 0.63*
Family planning: print 0.54* 0.52* 0.42* 0.43* 0.65* 0.64*
 Age group
  15-24 0.5* 0.56* 0.25 0.4* 0.63* 0.62*
  25-49 0.55* 0.51* 0.44* 0.44* 0.64* 0.62*
 Marital status
  Never 0.28 0.5 0.36 0.22 0.36* 0.26
  Currently / previously 0.55* 0.52* 0.43* 0.45* 0.66* 0.65*
 Maternal occupation
  Not working 0.45* 0.46* 0.14 0.42* 0.7* 0.73*
  Professional / sales 0.4* 0.43* 0.31* 0.4* 0.57* 0.56*
  Agriculture 0.43* 0.55* 0.32 0.47 0.42* 0.5*
  Others 0.43* 0.37* 0.19 0.38* 0.57* 0.59*
 Location
  Urban 0.31* 0.36* 0.26* 0.34* 0.39* 0.36*
  Rural 0.45* 0.54* 0.45* 0.3* 0.67* 0.67*
Modern contraceptive 0.01 -0.05 -0.06* 0.03 -0.04* -0.02
 Age group
  15-24 0.01 -0.05 -0.08* 0.06 0.02 0.02
  25-49 0.01 -0.04 -0.05* 0.03 -0.05* -0.02
 Marital status
 Never 0.04 -0.17 -0.06 0.07 0.05 0.07*
 Currently / previously 0.01 -0.04 -0.06* 0.03 -0.04* -0.02
 Maternal occupation
  Not working -0.01 -0.08 -0.05 0.05 -0.05 -0.03
  Professional / sales 0.02 -0.04 -0.08* 0.02 -0.03 -0.01
  Agriculture 0.01 -0.07* 0 0.04 -0.09* -0.03
  Others -0.02 -0.01 -0.07* -0.02 0 -0.05
 Location
  Urban -0.02 -0.06 -0.07* 0.02 -0.02 0
  Rural 0.02 -0.05 -0.02 0.03 -0.04* -0.03
Information on pregnancy complication 0.08* 0.07* 0.02* 0.13* 0.12* 0.1*
 Age group
  15-24 0.06* 0.06* 0 0.16* 0.12* 0.1*
  25-49 0.09* 0.07* 0.02* 0.11* 0.11* 0.09*
 Marital status
 Never 0.15* 0.1 0 0.1 0.1 0.08*
 Currently / previously 0.08* 0.07* 0.02* 0.13* 0.12* 0.1*
 Maternal occupation
  Not working 0.15* 0 0 0.17* 0.15* 0.1*
  Professional / sales 0.06* 0.04* 0 0.11* 0.09* 0.09*
  Agriculture 0.1 0.06* 0 0.1 0 0.07*
  Others 0.1 0 0.03* 0.11* 0.11* 0.08*
 Location
  Urban 0 0 0.02* 0.08* 0.07* 0.05*
  Rural 0.07* 0.07* 0 0.09* 0.1* 0.08*
Family planning: unmet need 0.01 0.01 -0.02 0.05 0.18* 0.18*
 Age group
  15-24 0.08* 0.06 0.05 0.11 0.25* 0.22*
  25-49 -0.02 -0.01 -0.03 0.03 0.17* 0.17*
 Marital status
  Never -0.03 0.09* -0.03 0.03 0.04 0
  Currently / previously 0.01 -0.01 -0.02 0.05 0.19* 0.19*
 Maternal occupation
  Not working 0.06 0.03 -0.04 0.08 0.21* 0.29*
  Professional / sales -0.04 -0.09* -0.11* 0.07 0.16* 0.21*
  Agriculture 0.07* 0.09* 0.08 0.06 0.12* 0.01
  Others -0.02 -0.06 -0.07 0.11 0.3* 0.19*
 Location
  Urban -0.02 -0.08 -0.11* 0.07 0.04 0.02
  Rural 0.07* 0.07* 0.06 0.03 0.22* 0.21*
  1. Note: Magnitudes of regional variation is available in Additional file 1
  2. *p ≤ 0.01