Skip to main content

Table 2 Perinatal outcomes in twin and singleton deliveries (unity of analysis are neonates). WHO Multicountry Survey, 2010–2011

From: Perinatal outcomes in twin pregnancies complicated by maternal morbidity: evidence from the WHO Multicountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health

Perinatal outcomes Twin deliveries
n (%)
Singleton deliveries n (%) Total
n (%)
PRadj (95% CI)
Gestational age at delivery a
  < 34 weeks 1098 (13·0) 7337 (2·4) 8435 (2·7) 6·77 (5·99–7·66)
 34–36 weeks 2035 (24·1) 14,791 (4·9) 16,826 (5·4) 5·57 (5·03–6·17)
  ≥ 37 weeks 5312 (62·9) 282,801 (92·7) 288,113 (91·9) Ref.
Birth weight b 1st twin 2nd twin    1st vs Single 2nd vs Single 2nd vs 1st
< 2500 g 2495 (53·2) 2299 (61·1) 32,480 (10·6) 37,274 (11·8) 5·03 (4·59–5·52) 5·78 (5·41–6·17) 1·15 (1·06–1·24)
≥ 2500 g 2193 (46·8) 1464 (38·9) 274,665 (89·4) 278,322 (88·2) Ref. Ref. Ref.
Adequacy of weight for GA c
SGA 2385 (51.7) 2043 (55.2) 77,855 (25.7) 82,283 (26.4) 2.01 (1.88–2.15) 2.15 (2.03–2.28) 1.07 (1.01–1.13)
No SGA 2232 (48.3) 1658 (44.8) 225,285 (74.3) 229,175 (73.6) Ref. Ref. Ref.
Apgar Score at 5th min d
  < 7 352 (7·8) 364 (10·1) 7928 (2·6) 8644 (2·8) 2·97 (2·49–3·54) 3·85 (3·20–4·63) 1·29 (1·12–1·50)
 7–10 4142 (92·2) 3227 (89·9) 292,805 (97·4) 300,174 (97·2) Ref. Ref. Ref.
Fetal and neonatal outcomes
 Fetal death e 169 (3·6) 215 (5·7) 6151 (2·0) 6535 (2·1) 1·79 (1·52–2·11) 2·83 (2·48–3·23) 1·58 (1·35–1·86)
 Early neonatal death f 160 (3·5) 189 (5·2) 2636 (0·9) 2985 (1·0) 4·03 (3·29–4·94) 5·99 (4·93–7·29) 1·49 (1·26–1·76)
 Late fetal death g 130 (2·7) 165 (4·3) 5241 (1·7) 5536 (1·7) 1·62 (1·35–1·94) 2·55 (2·21–2·94) 1·58 (1·30–1·92)
 Perinatal death h 328 (7.0) 381 (10.0) 8706 (2.8) 9415 (3.0) 2.46 (2.21–2.73) 3.55 (3.21–3.90) 1.44 (1.14–1.32)
 Preterm births a 1634 (35·0) 1492 (39·8) 22,128 (7·3) 25,254 (8·1) 4·82 (4·36–5·33) 5·48 (5·05–5·94) 1·14 (1·05–1·23)
 NICU admission i 1073 (23·6) 1059 (29·3) 19,468 (6·4) 21,600 (7·0) 3·65 (3·23–4·14) 4·54 (4·14–4·99) 1·24 (1·12–1·38)
Acute Adverse Perinatal Outcome (AcAPO) j 1395 (29.9) 1390 (36.8) 30,006 (9.8) 32,791 (10.4) 3.06 (2.77–3.38) 3.76 (3.47–4.08) 1.23 (1.11–1.32)
Any Adverse Perinatal Outcome (APO) k 3101 (67.0) 2709 (72.3) 98,128 (32.4) 103,938 (33.3) 2.07 (1.96–2.19) 2.24 (2.14–2.34) 1.08 (1.03–1.13)
Total 4733 3811 l 308,127 316,671    
  1. Chi-square test adjusted for the cluster design effect
  2. Missing information for a: 3320; b: 1075; c: 5213; d: 7853; e: 178; f: 6761; g: 159; h: 375; i: 6638; j: 1508; k: 4712 neonates
  3. Values in bold mean they are statistically significant (p < 0.05)
  4. AcAPO Acute Adverse Perinatal Outcome (Apgar score at 5th min < 7 OR Perinatal death OR NICU admission)
  5. APO any Adverse Perinatal Outcome (Apgar score at 5th min < 7 OR Perinatal death OR NICU admission OR SGA)
  6. lThere is no available information for the second or higher twin for the countries Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Qatar, Thailand, Vietnam and Uganda