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Table 2 Risk of bias of included studies

From: The effect of Ramadan fasting during pregnancy on perinatal outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Author Year Bias domain
Bias due to confounding Bias in selection of participants into the study Bias in classification of exposure Bias due to missing data Bias in measurement of outcomes Bias in selection of the reported result Overall
Alwasel 2011 Low/Moderate Low Serious Low Low Low Moderate
Arab 2001 Low Low Low Serious Low Low Moderate
Awwad 2012 Moderate Low Low Low Low Low Low
Azizi 2014 Low Low Low Moderate Low Low Low
Bayoglu Tekin 2016 Low Low Low Low Low Low Low
Daley 2018 Moderate Low Moderate Moderate Low Low Moderate
Hefni 1993 Low/Moderate Low Low Low Low Low/Moderate Low
Hizli 2012 Low Low Low Low Low Low Low
Karateke 2016 Moderate Low Low Low Low Low Low
Kavehmanesh 2004 Low/Moderate Low Low Low Low/Moderate Low Low
Malhotra 1989 Moderate Low Low Low/Moderate Low Low Moderate
Makvandi 2013 Moderate Low Low Low Low Low Low
Naderi 2004 Moderate Low Low Low Low Low Low
Ozturk 2011 Moderate Low Low Low Low/Moderate Low Low
Petherick 2014 Moderate/Serious Low Moderate Low Low Low Moderate
Rezk 2016 Low Low Low Low Low Low Low
Sakar 2016 Low Low Low Low Low Low Low
Sarafraz 2013 Low Low Low Low Low Low Low
Savitri 2018 Low Serious Low Low Low Low Moderate
Seckin 2014 Low Low Low Low Low Low Low
Shahgheibi 2005 Low/Moderate Low Low Low Low Low Low
Ziaee 2010 Low Low Low Low Low Low Low
  1. Studies found to have a moderate or greater risk of bias in one or more domains are highlighted in bold