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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies

From: The effect of Ramadan fasting during pregnancy on perinatal outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Authors Year Location and study period Total pregnancies Cases Controls Primary outcomes Secondary outcomes Trimester of fasting Length and duration of fasting (days and average hours/day) Risk of bias (ROBINS-I)
Alwasel 2011 Saudi Arabia, August 2000–April 2009 17,626 13,220 4406 BW, PW 1st, 2nd, 3rd n/a Moderate
Arab 2001 Iran, 1999 4343 3086 1257 SGA BW, LBW n/a 1 to 20+ days n/a Moderate
Awwad 2012 Lebanon, September 2008 402 201 201 PTB BW, LBW 1st, 2nd, 3rd 22 +/− 9 days n/a Low
Azizi 2004 Iran, April–September 2001 191 98 93 BW 3rd 28 +/− 2 days 13 h20 min Low
Bayoglu Tekin 2016 Turkey, June–July 2014 48 23 25 BW 3rd 18.2 +/− 2 days 17.24 h Low
Daley 2017 United Kingdom, March 2007 – December 2010 5156 479 4677 PTB BW, LBW 1st n/a Moderate
Hefni 1993 Egypt, 1991 322 167 155 BW, SB 3rd n/a > 10 h Low
Hızlı 2012 Turkey, August–September 2010 110 56 54 BW 3rd 12.9 +/− 2.5 days 15.3 h (12–19) Low
Karateke 2016 Turkey, June–July 2014 240 120 120 BW, LBW 1st, 2nd, 3rd n/a n/a Low
Kavehmanesh 2004 Iran, January–September 2000 539 284 255 PTB BW n/a 24 +/− 9 days 13 h Low
Makvandi 2013 Iran, 2013 300 150 150 BW, LBW 3rd 16.6+/−13.2 days n/a Low
Malhotra 1989 United Kingdom, April–May 1987 22 11 11 SGA BW, CA, NND, PW 3rd n/a 7 h Moderate
Naderi 2004 Iran, November 2001 101 51 50 BW n/a 20+ days n/a Low
Ozturk 2011 Turkey, September 2008 72 42 30 PTB 2nd 10+ days Approximately 12 h Low
Petherick 2014 United Kingdom, October–December 2010 300 128 172 PTB BW, GD, Hyp, LBW 1st, 2nd, 3rd 1–29 days Up to 18 h Moderate
Rezk 2016 Egypt, June–July 2015 450 210 240 BW 3rd 30 days 12-16 h Low
Sakar 2016 Turkey, August–October 2013 338 168 170 BW, PW 3rd 25.17 +/− 5.44 days n/a Low
Sarafraz 2014 Iran, 2008 293 200 93 BW 1st, 2nd, 3rd 1 to 20+ days n/a Low
Savitri 2018 Indonesia, July 2012 – July 2014 139 110 29 BW 1st, 2nd, 3rd 1–30 days n/a Moderate
Seckin 2014 Turkey, July–August 2013 169 82 87 BW 3rd 23 +/− 3.6 days 18.7 h (17–20) Low
Shahgheibi 2005 Iran, (dates unknown) 163 63 100 BW, LBW 3rd 10 to 20+ days n/a Low
Ziaee 2010 Iran, October 2004 189 123 66 BW, LBW 1st, 2nd, 3rd 1 to 20+ days 13 h Low
  1. Primary outcomes: SGA small for gestational age, PTB preterm birth. Secondary outcomes, BW birth weight, CA congenital abnormalities, GD gestational diabetes, Hyp hypertension, LBW low birth weight, NND neonatal death, PW placental weight, SB stillbirth