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Table 1 Socioeconomic, pregnancy and birth characteristics of women in the pilot study by birth mode

From: Postpartum quality of life in Indian women after vaginal birth and cesarean section: a pilot study using the EQ-5D-5L descriptive system

  Vaginal birth Cesarean section P
Socioeconomic characteristics
 Mother’s age    0.49
  18–20 39 (21.9%) 6 (13.0%)  
  21–24 84 (47.2%) 23 (50.0%)  
  25–29 46 (25.8%) 13 (28.3%)  
  30–36 9 (5.1%) 4 (8.7%)  
 Years of schooling    0.007
  None 53 (29.8%) 8 (17.4%)  
  Primary (1–5) 35 (19.7%) 4 (8.7%)  
  Secondary (6–12) 87 (48.9%) 30 (65.2%)  
  Higher (> 12) 3 (1.7%) 4 (8.7%)  
 Caste of woman    < 0.01
  Scheduled Caste/Tribe 45 (25.3%) 7 (15.2%)  
  Other Backward Caste 125 (70.2%) 31 (67.4%)  
  General Caste 8 (4.5%) 8 (17.4%)  
 Household income    0.01
  0–2499 INR 16 (9.0%) 1 (2.2%)  
  2500–4999 INR 49 (27.5%) 5 (10.9%)  
  5000–9999 INR 68 (38.2%) 20 (43.5%)  
  10,000–60,000 INR 45 (25.3%) 20 (43.5%)  
 Below poverty line    0.84
  No 40 (22.5%) 11 (23.9%)  
  Yes 138 (77.5%) 35 (76.1%)  
Pregnancy and birth characteristics
 Previous pregnancies    0.42
  None 23 (12.9%) 10 (21.7%)  
  1–2 125 (70.2%) 31 (67.4%)  
  3–4 24 (13.5%) 4 (8.7%)  
  5−7 6 (3.4%) 1 (2.2%)  
 Woman reported episiotomy    < 0.001
  No 58 (32.6%) 45 (97.8%)  
  Yes 120 (67.4%) 1 (2.2%)  
 Risk factors for cesarean section1    < 0.001
  No 160 (89.9%) 6 (13.0%)  
  Yes 18 (10.1%) 40 (87.0%)  
 Ante- or postpartum hemorrhage    0.40
  No 169 (94.9%) 45 (97.8%)  
  Yes 9 (5.1%) 1 (2.2%)  
 Prolonged labor, anemia or fever    0.72
  No 151 (84.8%) 40 (87.0%)  
  Yes 27 (15.2%) 6 (13.0%)  
 Baby’s health (2–3 days postpartum)    0.43
  Healthy 155 (87.1%) 42 (91.3%)  
  Sick 23 (12.9%) 4 (8.7%)  
 Length of hospital stay after birth, median (IQR) 2.0 (1.0, 2.0) 3.0 (3.0, 5.0) < 0.001
 Length of hospital stay    < 0.001
  Below median duration for birth mode 81 (45.5%) 7 (15.2%)  
  Of median duration for birth mode 81 (45.5%) 23 (50.0%)  
  Above median duration for birth mode 16 (9.0%) 16 (34.8%)  
 Birth place    0.02
  Community health center 55 (30.9%) 6 (13.0%)  
  District hospital 39 (21.9%) 8 (17.4%)  
  Private hospital 84 (47.2%) 32 (69.6%)  
N 178 46  
  1. 1Risk factors for cesarean section include premature rupture of membranes, preeclampsia signs, obstructed labor, malpresentation, oligohydramnios, and previous cesarean section
  2. INR Indian Rupee, IQR interquartile range
  3. P-values of Wilcoxon rank-sum test or Pearson’s chi-squared test